World Library  


Add to Book Shelf
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Book

Metrological Traceability of Oceanographic Salinity Measurement Results : Volume 7, Issue 1 (19/01/2011)

By Seitz, S.

Click here to view

Book Id: WPLBN0004020521
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 18
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Metrological Traceability of Oceanographic Salinity Measurement Results : Volume 7, Issue 1 (19/01/2011)  
Author: Seitz, S.
Volume: Vol. 7, Issue 1
Language: English
Subject: Science, Ocean, Science
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2011
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Weinreben, S., Feistel, R., Wright, D. G., Bièvre, P. D., Seitz, S., & Spitzer, P. (2011). Metrological Traceability of Oceanographic Salinity Measurement Results : Volume 7, Issue 1 (19/01/2011). Retrieved from http://worldebookfair.org/


Description
Description: Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany. Consistency of observed oceanographic salinity data is discussed with respect to contemporary metrological concepts. The claimed small uncertainty of salinity measurement results traceable to the conductivity ratio of a certified IAPSO Standard Seawater reference is not metrologically justified if results are compared on climatic time scales. This applies in particular to Practical Salinity SP, Reference Salinity SR, and the latest estimates of Absolute Salinity using the TEOS-10 formalism. On climate time scales an additional contribution to the uncertainty that is related to unknown property changes of the reference material must be accounted for. Moreover, when any of these measured or calculated quantity values is used to estimate Absolute Salinity of a seawater sample under investigation, another uncertainty contribution is required to quantify the accuracy of the equations relating the actually measured quantity to the Absolute Salinity. Without accounting for these additional uncertainties, such results cannot be used to estimate Absolute Salinity with respect to the International System of Units (SI), i.e. to the unit chosen for the mass fraction of dissolved material in the sample, which is g kg−1. From a metrological point of view, such deficiencies in the calculations involving other quantities will produce SI-incompatible results. We outline how these problems can be overcome by linking salinity to primary SI measurement standards.

Summary
Metrological traceability of oceanographic salinity measurement results

Excerpt
Aoyama, M., Joyce, T. M., Kawano, T., and Takatsuki, Y.: Standard seawater comparison up to P129, Deep-Sea Res. I, 49, 1103–1114, 2002.; Bacon, S., Snaith, H. M., and Yelland, M. J.: An evaluation of some recent batches of IAPSO standard seawater, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 17, 854–861, 2000.; Chen, C. T. and Millero, F. J.: Precise thermodynamical properties for natural waters covering only the limnological range, Limnol. Oceanogr., 31, 657–662, 1986.; Bacon, S., Culkin, F., Higgs, N., and Ridout, P.: IAPSO Standard Seawater: Definition of the uncertainty in the calibration procedure, and stability of recent batches, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 24, 1785–1799, 2007.; Brinkmann, F., Dam, N. E., Deák, E., Durbiano, F., Ferrara, E., Fükö, J., Jensen, H. D., Máriássy, M., Shreiner, R. H., Spitzer, P., Sudmeier, U., Surdu, M., and Vyskocil, L.: Primary methods for the measurement of electrolytic conductivity, Accred Qual. Assur., 8, 346–353, 2003.; Culkin, F. and Ridout, P. S.: Stability of IAPSO Standard Seawater, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 15, 1072–1075, 1998.; Culkin, F. and Smith, N. D.: Determination of the concentration of potassium chloride solution having the same electrical conductivity, at 15 °C and infinit frequency, as standard seawater of salinity 35.0000‰ (chlorinity 19.37394\permil), IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, OE-5, 22–23, 1980.; Dauphinee, T. M., Ancsin, J., Klein, H. P., and Phillips, M. J.: The effect of concentration and temperature on the conductivity ratio of potassium chloride solutions to standard seawater of salinity 35\permil (Cl 19.3740\permil), IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, OE-5, 17–21, 1980.; DeBièvre, P.: Essential for metrology in chemistry, but not yet achieved: truly internationally understood concepts and associated terms, Metrologia, 45, 335–341, 2008.; DeBièvre, P., Dybkaer, R., Fajgelj, A., and Hibbert, D. B.: Provisional IUPAC recommendations: Metrological traceability of measurement results in chemistry: concepts and implementation, at http://old.iupac.org/reports/provisional/abstract09/debievre_prs.pdf, 2010.; Feistel, R.: A new extended Gibbs thermodynamic potential of seawater, Prog. Oceanogr., 58, 43–115, 2003.; Feistel, R.: A Gibbs function for seawater thermodynamics for −6 to 80 °C and salinity up to 120 g/kg, Deep-Sea Res. I, 55, 1639–1671, 2008.; Feistel, R. and Hagen, E.: On the Gibbs thermodynamic potential of water, Prog. Oceanogr., 36, 249–327, 1995.; Feistel, R., Wright, D. G., Miyagawa, K., Harvey, A. H., Hruby, J., Jackett, D. R., McDougall, T. J., and Wagner, W.: Mutually consistent thermodynamic potentials for fluid water, ice and seawater: a new standard for oceanography, Ocean Sci., 4, 275–291, doi:10.5194/os-4-275-2008, 2008.; Feistel, R., Marion, G. M., Pawlowicz, R., and Wright, D. G.: Thermophysical property anomalies of Baltic seawater, Ocean Sci., 6, 949–981, doi:10.5194/os-6-949-2010, 2010a.; Feistel, R., Weinreben, S., Wolf, H., Seitz, S., Spitzer, P., Adel, B., Nausch, G., Schneider, B., and Wright, D. G.: Density and Absolute Salinity of the Baltic Sea 2006–2009, Ocean Sci., 6, 3–24, doi:10.5194/os-6-3-2010, 2010b.; Forch, C., Knudsen, M., and Sørensen, S. P. L.: Berichte über die Konstantenbestimmungen zur Aufstellung der hydrographischen Tabellen, gesammelt von Martin Knudsen, Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Skrifter, 6, 1–152, 1902.; Guildline: Technical Manual for Model 8400B Autosal, Smith Falls Ontario Canada: Guildline Instruments Limited, 2004.; GUM: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement, Guide 98-3:2008 [JCGM 100:2008], Geneva, Switzerland, at http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/guides/gum.html, 2008.; IOC, S. a. I.: The international thermodynamic equation of seawater 2010: Calculation and use of thermodynamic properties. Intergovernmental Oceanographic

 

Click To View

Additional Books


  • Freshwater Components and Transports in ... (by )
  • Influence of Cross-shelf Water Transport... (by )
  • Numerical Implementation and Oceanograph... (by )
  • A Simple and Self-consistent Geostrophic... (by )
  • Technical Note: Mean Sea Level Variation... (by )
  • Springtime Contribution of Dinitrogen Fi... (by )
  • An Operational Implementation of the Ghe... (by )
  • Sensitivity of Phytoplankton Distributio... (by )
  • Understanding Mixing Efficiency in the O... (by )
  • New Constraints on the Eastern Mediterra... (by )
  • Changes in Extreme Regional Sea Surface ... (by )
  • On the Assimilation of Ice Velocity and ... (by )
Scroll Left
Scroll Right

 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Fair are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.