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A Meteor Head Echo Analysis Algorithm for the Lower Vhf Band : Volume 30, Issue 4 (02/04/2012)

By Kero, J.

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Book Id: WPLBN0004002151
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 21
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: A Meteor Head Echo Analysis Algorithm for the Lower Vhf Band : Volume 30, Issue 4 (02/04/2012)  
Author: Kero, J.
Volume: Vol. 30, Issue 4
Language: English
Subject: Science, Annales, Geophysicae
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Publication Date:
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications


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Nishimura, K., Terasawa, T., Nakamura, T., Kero, J., Miyamoto, H., & Szasz, C. (2012). A Meteor Head Echo Analysis Algorithm for the Lower Vhf Band : Volume 30, Issue 4 (02/04/2012). Retrieved from

Description: National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR), 10-3 Midoricho, Tachikawa, 190-8518 Tokyo, Japan. We have developed an automated analysis scheme for meteor head echo observations by the 46.5 MHz Middle and Upper atmosphere (MU) radar near Shigaraki, Japan (34.85° N, 136.10° E). The analysis procedure computes meteoroid range, velocity and deceleration as functions of time with unprecedented accuracy and precision. This is crucial for estimations of meteoroid mass and orbital parameters as well as investigations of the meteoroid-atmosphere interaction processes. In this paper we present this analysis procedure in detail. The algorithms use a combination of single-pulse-Doppler, time-of-flight and pulse-to-pulse phase correlation measurements to determine the radial velocity to within a few tens of metres per second with 3.12 ms time resolution. Equivalently, the precision improvement is at least a factor of 20 compared to previous single-pulse measurements. Such a precision reveals that the deceleration increases significantly during the intense part of a meteoroid's ablation process in the atmosphere. From each received pulse, the target range is determined to within a few tens of meters, or the order of a few hundredths of the 900 m long range gates. This is achieved by transmitting a 13-bit Barker code oversampled by a factor of two at reception and using a novel range interpolation technique. The meteoroid velocity vector is determined from the estimated radial velocity by carefully taking the location of the meteor target and the angle from its trajectory to the radar beam into account. The latter is determined from target range and bore axis offset. We have identified and solved the signal processing issue giving rise to the peculiar signature in signal to noise ratio plots reported by Galindo et al. (2011), and show how to use the range interpolation technique to differentiate the effect of signal processing from physical processes.

A meteor head echo analysis algorithm for the lower VHF band

Kero, J., Szasz, C., Nakamura, T., Meisel, D. D., Ueda, M., Fujiwara, Y., Terasawa, T., Miyamoto, H., and Nishimura, K.: First results from the 2009-2010 MU radar head echo observation programme for sporadic and shower meteors: the Orionids 2009, MNRAS, 416, 2550–2559, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19146.x, 2011.; Kero, J., Szasz, C., Nakamura, T., Meisel, D. D., Ueda, M., Fujiwara, Y., Terasawa, T., Nishimura, K., and Junichi, W.: The 2009–2010 MU radar head echo observation programme for sporadic and shower meteors: radiants and diurnal rates, MNRAS, in review, 2012.; Loveland, R., Macdonell, A., Close, S., Oppenheim, M., and Colestock, P.: Comparison of methods of determining meteoroid range rates from linear frequency modulated chirped pulses, Radio Sci., 46, RS2007, doi:10.1029/2010RS004479, 2011.; Malhotra, A. and Mathews, J. D.: A statistical study of meteoroid fragmentation and differential ablation using the Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar, J. Geophys. Res. (Space Physics), 116, A04316, doi:10.1029/2010JA016135, 2011.; Manikas, A., Sleiman, A., and Dacos, I.: Manifold studies of nonlinear antenna array geometries, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 49, 497–506, doi:10.1109/78.905865, 2001.; Mathews, J. D. and Malhotra, A.: Meteoroid fragmentation as revealed in head- and trail-echoes observed with the Arecibo UHF and VHF radars, in: Proceedings of Meteoroids 2010, NASA, Breckenridge CO, NASA, 24–28 May 2010.; Mathews, J. D., Meisel, D. D., Hunter, K. P., Getman, V. S., and Zhou, Q.: Very High Resolution Studies of Micrometeors Using the A}recibo 430 {MHz Radar, Icarus, 126, 157–169, doi:10.1006/icar.1996.5641, 1997.; Mathews, J. D., Doherty, J., Wen, C.-H., Briczinski, S. J., Janches, D., and Meisel, D. D.: An update on UHF radar meteor observations and associated signal processing techniques at {A}recibo {O}bservatory, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 65, 1139–1149, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2003.07.009, 2003.; Mathews, J. D., Briczinski, S. J., Meisel, D. D., and Heinselman, C. J.: Radio and meteor science outcomes from comparisons of meteor radar observations at AMISR {P}oker {F}lat, {S}ondrestrom and {A}recibo, EM&P, 102, 365–372, doi:10.1007/s11038-007-9168-0, 2008.; Mathews, J. D., Briczinski, S. J., Malhotra, A., and Cross, J.: Extensive meteoroid fragmentation in V/UHF radar meteor observations at Arecibo Observatory, Geophys. Res. Lett., 370, L04103, doi:10.1029/2009GL041967, 2010.; Megner, L., Rapp, M., and Gumbel, J.: Distribution of meteoric smoke – sensitivity to microphysical properties and atmospheric conditions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 4415–4426, doi:10.5194/acp-6-4415-2006, 2006.; Nishimura, K., Sato, T., Nakamura, T., and Ueda, M.: High sensitivity radar-optical observations of faint meteors, IEICE Trans. Comm., E84-C, 1877–1884, 2001.; Pellinen-Wannberg, A.: The high power large aperture radar method for meteor observations, in: Proc. of the Meteoroids 2001 Conference, Kiruna, Sweden, edited by: Warmbein, B., vol. 495, pp. 443–450, ESA, ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, the Netherlands, 2001.; Pellinen-Wannberg, A.: Meteor head echoes – observations and models, Ann. Geophys., 23, 201–205, doi:


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