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Empirical Correction of Xbt Fall Rate and Its Impact on Heat Content Analysis : Volume 8, Issue 1 (02/02/2011)

By Hamon, M.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003984794
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 30
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Empirical Correction of Xbt Fall Rate and Its Impact on Heat Content Analysis : Volume 8, Issue 1 (02/02/2011)  
Author: Hamon, M.
Volume: Vol. 8, Issue 1
Language: English
Subject: Science, Ocean, Science
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2011
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

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Reverdin, G., Hamon, M., & Le Traon, P. Y. (2011). Empirical Correction of Xbt Fall Rate and Its Impact on Heat Content Analysis : Volume 8, Issue 1 (02/02/2011). Retrieved from http://worldebookfair.org/


Description
Description: Laboratoire d'Oceanographie Spatiale, IFREMER, B.P.70 Plouzane, France. We used a collocation method between XBT and CTD/OSD (Ocean Station Data including bottle cast and low resolution CTD) from WOD05 (1°×2°×15 days) to statistically correct the XBT fall rate. An analysis of the annual median bias on depth showed that it is necessary to apply a thermal correction linked to probe calibration error, a second order correction on the depth as well as a depth offset representing measurement errors during XBT deployment. We had to separate data in several categories: shallow and deep XBT and deployment sea temperatures (below or above 10 °C). We also processed separately XBT measurements close to Japan between 1968 and 1985 due to large regional biases. Once the corrections have been applied, the analysis of heat content signal is derived from corrected XBT. From this analysis, we confirm that the maximum heat content in the top 700 m found during the 70's in early papers can be explained by the XBT biases. In addition, a trend of 0.32.1022 J/year is observed between the period 1970 and 2008.

Summary
Empirical correction of XBT fall rate and its impact on heat content analysis

Excerpt
Gouretski, V. and Koltermann, K.: How much is the ocean really warming? Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L01610, doi:10.1029/2006GL027834, 2007.; Gouretski, V. and Reseghetti, F.: On depth and temperature biases in bthythermograph data: Development of a new correction scheme based on analysis of a global ocean database, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 57, 812–833, 2010.; Hanawa, K., Rual, P., Bailey, R., Sy, A., and Szabados, M.: A new depth-time equation for Sippican or TSK T-7, T-6 and T-4 expendable bathythermographs (XBT), 1995.; Levitus S., Antonov, J., and Boyer, T.: Warming of the world ocean, 1955–2003, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L02604, doi:10.1029/2004GL021592, 2005.; Seaver, G. A. and, Kuleshov, S.: Experimental and Analytical Error of the Expendable Bathythermograph, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 12, 592–600, 1982.; Levitus, S., Antonov, J., Boyer, T., Locamini, R. A., Garcia, H. E., and Mishonov, A. V.: Global ocean heat content 1955–2008 in light of recently revealed instrumentation problems, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L07608, doi:10.1029/2008GL037155, 2009.; Reseghetti, F., Borghini, M., and Manzella, G. M. R.: Factors affecting the quality of XBT data – results of analyses on profiles from the Western Mediterranean Sea, Ocean Sci., 3, 59–75, doi:10.5194/os-3-59-2007, 2007.; Thadathil, P., Gosh, A. K., and Muraleedharan, P. M.: An evaluation of XBT depth equations for the Indian Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 45, 819–827, 1997.; Thadathil, P., Gosh, A. K., Pattanaik, J., and Ratnakaran, L.: A Quality-Control Procedure for Surface and Surface Layer Inversion in the XBT Data Archive from the Indian Ocean, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 16, 980–982, 1998.; Thadathil, P., Saran, A. K., Gopalakrishna, V. V., Vethamony, P., Araligidad, N., Bailey, R.: XBT Fall Rate in Waters of Extreme Temperature: A Case Study in the Antarctic Ocean, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 19, 391–396, 2002.; Wijffels, S. E., Willis, J., Domingues, C. M., Barker, P., White, N. J., Gronell, A., Ridgway, K., Church, J. A.: Changing Expendable Bathythermograph Fall Rates and Their Impact on Estimates of Thermosteric Sea Level Rise, J. Climate, 21, 5657–5672, doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2290.1, 2008.

 

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