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World Health Organization : Year 1998 ; World Health Organization, Drug Programme, No. 98.9 Revised: Globalization and Access to Drugs

By World Health Organization

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Book Id: WPLBN0000098855
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 5.6 MB
Reproduction Date: 2005
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Title: World Health Organization : Year 1998 ; World Health Organization, Drug Programme, No. 98.9 Revised: Globalization and Access to Drugs  
Author: World Health Organization
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Health., Public health, Wellness programs
Collections: Medical Library Collection, World Health Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: World Health Organization

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Organization, W. H. (n.d.). World Health Organization : Year 1998 ; World Health Organization, Drug Programme, No. 98.9 Revised. Retrieved from http://worldebookfair.org/


Description
Medical Reference Publication

Excerpt
Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge the following individuals who contributed comments and constructive suggestions to the review of this document: D. G. Barboza (Law Firm of Neviani, Borges & Beildeck, Rio de Janeiro); P. Chirac (pharmacist, la revue Prescrire, Paris); C. Correa (Professor at the University of Buenos Aires); M. Haubert (Director of the Institute of Study on Economic and Social Development at the University of Paris I); B. Remiche (Professor at the University of Louvain); as well as F.S. Antezana (Former Deputy Director-General, WHO), and P. Brudon, D. Fresle, H.V. Hogerzeil, J.D. Quick and T. Sodogandji, from the Action Programme on Essential Drugs, WHO.

Table of Contents
Table of contents Abbreviations and acronyms ..........................................................................................1. 1.1. PART I . GLOBALIZATION AND ACCESS TO DRUGS: IMPLICATIONS OF THE WTOITRIPS AGREEMENT .............................................................. 1 Executive summary ........................................................................................................... 3 Introduction .......................................................................................................................7 1 . Brief historical background to the international trading system ............................. 9 I . 1 The simultaneous creation of the GATT. tlze IMF and tlze World Bank ................. 9 1.2 The objectives. nature andfinctiorzing of tlze GATT ......................................... 10 Objectives ........................................................................................................... 10 Nature ................................................................................................................. 10 Obligations of the contracting parties ................................................................. 10 The Rounds. ..................................................................................................... 11 1.3 The Uruguay Round and tlze creation of tlze WTO ............................................ 11 The new global economic environment .............................................................. 11 Long and difficult negotiations ........................................................................... 11 The results of the Uruguay Round: strengthening and enlargement of the multilateral trade system ..................................................................................... 12 How does the WTO differ from the GATT? .................................................... 14 1.4 The protection of intellectual property riglzts before tlze WTO ............................ 15 2 . Reading the TRIPS Agreement from the perspective of access to drugs .............. 17 2.1 General presentation of the Agreement ................................................................ 17 2.2 Fundamental prirzciples and objectives of the Agreement: the necessary balance bebveerz iiztellectual property and accessibility .................................... 17 2.3 Patents forphal-nzaceutical products and processes available all over the world ............................................................................................................. 19 2.4 Norl-patentable inventions: bioteclz~zologyii zventions ......................................... 21 2.5 Effects of protection: a monopoly of working for 20 yea1-s .................................. 22 Attenuation of the monopoly through exhaustion of rights ................................ 22 Strengthening the monopoly through the patenting of processes ........................ 24 Extension of the duration of the monopoly ....................................................... 25 2.6 Application of the TRIPS Agreement .................................................................... 26 For industrialized countries: 1996 ......................................................................2 7 For developing countries: 2000 or 2005 ..........................................................2..7. For least-developed countries: 2006 ................................................................... 28 2.7 During the transitional period ............................................................................. 28 Establishment of a mail-box in 1995 ............................................................... 28 Possibility of exclusive marketing rights ....................................................... 2 9 What happens to existing patents? .....................................

 

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