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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 405: Nutritional Anaemias

By World Health Organization

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Book Id: WPLBN0000052337
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 1.5 MB
Reproduction Date: 2005
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Title: World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 405: Nutritional Anaemias  
Author: World Health Organization
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Health., Public health, Wellness programs
Collections: Medical Library Collection, World Health Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: World Health Organization

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Organization, W. H. (n.d.). World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 405. Retrieved from http://worldebookfair.org/


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Medical Reference Publication

Excerpt
INTRODUCTION Nutritional anaemia is defined as a condition in which the haemoglobin content of the blood is lower than normal as a result of a deficiency of one or more essential nutrients, regardless of the cause of such deficiency. However, in defining a departure from normality, it must be recognized that normal haemoglobin levels vary with age, sex, weight, physiological status, and altitude. Anaemia is considered to be a late manifestation of nutritional deficiency, and even mild anaemia is not the earliest sign of such a deficiency. In this report, the terms iron deficiency and vitamin B,, or folate deficiency are used in preference to iron deficiency anaemia and megaloblastic anaemia, respectively, since anaemias are a late manifestation of these deficiencies and the object of therapy is to correct the underlying deficiency rather than merely its manifestation. Nutritional anaemias are an important nutritional problem affecting large population groups in most developing countries. Accordingly, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Nutrition has recommended that WHO initiate and encourage the investigation of blood dyscrasias believed to be the result of malnutrition, with particular attention to the relative roles of dietary deficiencies and parasitism in the pathogenesis of nutritional anaemias. The Committee has also called attention to the problem of anaemias of pregnancy, which are considered to be of great public health importance, particularly in developing countries. In 1958, WHO convened a Study Group l to review the information available on iron deficiency anaemia. The Study Group recommended that investigatioils be under-

Table of Contents
CONTENTS Pase Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1 . The problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2 . Standardization of methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Vitamin BIZ and folate in serum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Iron in serum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Haemoglobin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3 . Criteria for the diagnosis of anaemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4 . WHO studies of anaemia of pregnancy Israel . . . . . . . . . . . . . Warsaw. Poland . . . . . . . . New Delhi. India . . . . . . . . Vellore. Madras State. India . . . Mexico . . . . . . . . . . . . Caracas. Venezuela . . . . . . . Therapeutic trials . . . . . . . . 5.Irondeficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Absorption of food iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Loss of body iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Tissue iron stores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Role of parasitic infection in iron loss . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Iron requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6 . Vitamin BIZ and folate deficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Criteria for the diagnosis of deficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 7 . Prevention of nutritional anaemias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 General sanitary and dietary measures . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Food enrichment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Iron supplementation in pregnancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Mass treatment of iron deficiencj- in schoolchildren . . . . . . 25 8 . Co-ordination of research on nutritional anaemia . . . . . . . . . 26 WHO collaborative studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 9 . Summary of recommendations . . . Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Annex . Results of WHO studies of anaemia of pregnancy . . . . . 28

 

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