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Mathematics


The category of mathematics are works on the abstract study of subjects encompassing quantity, structure, space, change, and more; it has no generally accepted definition.

 
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Artificial Intelligence and Responsive Optimization (Second Edition)

By: Florentin Smarandache; M. Khoshnevisan

In part 1, we have defined a fuzzy utility system, with different financial goals, different levels of risk tolerance and different personal preferences, liquid assets, etc. In part 2, we have defined a computational model for a simple portfolio insurance strategy using a protective put and computationally derive the investor’s governing utility structures underlying such a strategy under alternative market scenarios. In Part 3, it is proposed an artificial classificati...

In this paper we have designed our fuzzy system so that customers are classified to belong to any one of the following three categories: *Conservative and security-oriented (risk shy) *Growth-oriented and dynamic (risk neutral) *Chance-oriented and progressive (risk happy) A neutrosophic system has three components – that’s why it may be considered as just a generalization of a fuzzy system which has only two components. Besides being useful for clients, investor cla...

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Amprente Paradoxiste

By: Gheorge Niculescu; Florentin Smarandache

The authors use linguistic paradoxes, play against the grain on linguistic clichés, and employ mathematical combinations of words involving contradictions, antitheses, oxymoron, which fully characterize the paradoxism movement in literature and science.

A descris ceva de nedescris. ● Unul venea după bani, iar celălalt după amiază. ● Memoria, fiind de genul feminin, mă cam înşeală. ● A avut o tentativă de omor prin imprudenţă. ● El a rămas repetent, iar ea a rămas gravidă. ● A legat un cal putere de un arbore cotit, într-un câmp electromagnetic. ● Unul avea ochi albaştri, iar celălalt avea darul beţiei. ● L-a scos din minţi şi l-a băgat în spital. ● Nevasta generalului în retragere era mereu în atac. ● Este fond...

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Algebraic Structures Using Super Interval Matrices

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

In this book authors for the first time introduce the notion of super interval matrices using the special intervals of the form [0, a], a belongs to Z+ ∪ {0} or Zn or Q+ ∪ {0} or R+ ∪ {0}.

SUPER INTERVAL SEMILINEAR ALGEBRAS In this chapter we for the first time introduce the notion of semilinear algebra of super interval matrices over semifields of type I (super semilinear algebra of type I) and semilinear algebra of super interval matrices over interval semifields of type II (super semilinear algebra of type II) and study their properties and illustrate them with examples. DEFINITION 4.1: Let V be a semivector space of super interval matrices defined ...

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Algebra În Exerciţii şi Probleme Pentru Liceu : Mulţimi, Operaţii ...

By: Florentin Smarandache; Ion Goian

This paper contains exercises and problems of algebra and grouped chapters, the upper classes of secondary schools and coli culture media general. Its purpose is to prepare students from high schools mathematics categories and will be helpful in working independently. Also work can be used for extra school work because the reader will find in it important formulas, theorems, concepts, and basic definitions which are not always included in school textbooks.

Prezenta lucrare conţine exerciţii §i probleme de algebră, grupate pe capitole, pentru clasele superioare de licee §i §coli medii de cultură generală. Scopul ei este pregătirea matematică a elevilor din liceele de toate categoriile §i va fi utilă în lucrul de sine stătător. De asemenea, lucrarea poate fi folosită pentru lucrul extra§colar, deoarece cititorul va găsi în ea teoreme §i formule importante, noţiuni §i definiţii de bază care nu întotdeauna sunt incluse în manualele §colare.

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Aftermath & Antimath

By: Florentin Smarandache

The methodology of how mathematics is untaught.

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Aflorisme

By: Florentin Smarandache

Etimologic, aforism + flori = af(L)orism, deci un “aflorism” este o mică reflecție scrisă pe un dizain floral, ori un poem scurt pe un fond artistic.

Cost piperat Sau ţi-o pune aşa un preţ ..să pici în coadă!

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Absolute Theory of Relativity and Parameterized Special Theory of ...

By: Florentin Smarandache

In the first chapter of this book we discuss Einstein’s thought experiment with atomic clocks.

Preface (Many Relativities ) In the first chapter of this book we discuss Einstein’s thought experiment with atomic clocks: A rocket travels at a constant speed v with respect to the earth. In the rocket, a light pulse is emitted by a source from A to a mirror B that reflects it back to A where it is detected. The rocket’s movement and the light pulse’s movement are orthogonal. There is an observer in the rocket (the astronaut) and an observer on the earth. The traject...

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Mathematics for Computer Scientists

By: Gareth J. Janacek; Mark Lemmon Close

Aim of this book is to present basic mathematics that is needed by computer scientists The reader is not expected to be a mathematician and we hope you will find what follows to be useful.

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The Warp Drive : Hyper-fast Travel Within General Relativity

By: Miguel Alcubierre

It is shown how, within the framework of general relativity and without the introduction of wormholes, it is possible to modify a spacetime in a way that allows a spaceship to travel with an arbitrarily large speed. By a purely local expansion of spacetime behind the spaceship and an opposite contraction in front of it, motion faster than the speed of light as seen by observers outside the disturbed region is possible. The resulting distortion is reminiscent of the "warp...

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The Air War in Southeast Asia : Case Studies of Selected Campaigns

By: Herman L. Gilster

Over the years many researchers have analyzed the political aspects of the air war in Southeast Asia. Their studies range from the original Pentagon Papers to those published more recently. Very little, however, focuses on the economic and operational aspects of the war. The purpose of this book is to fill that void by presenting a set of case studies that subject selected air campaigns during the Southeast Asia era to rigid economic analysis.

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Smarandache Fuzzy Algebra

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

In this book, we study the subject of Smarandache Fuzzy Algebra. Originally, the revolutionary theory of Smarandache notions was born as a paradoxist movement that challenged the status quo of existing mathematics. The genesis of Smarandache Notions, a field founded by Florentine Smarandache, is alike to that of Fuzzy Theory: both the fields imperatively questioned the dogmas of classical mathematics.

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Bialgebraic Structures and Smarandache Bialgebraic Structures

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

The study of bialgebraic structures started very recently. Till date there are no books solely dealing with bistructures. The study of bigroups was carried out in 1994-1996. Further research on bigroups and fuzzy bigroups was published in 1998. In the year 1999, bivector spaces was introduced. In 2001, concept of free De Morgan bisemigroups and bisemilattices was studied. It is said by Zoltan Esik that these bialgebraic structures like bigroupoids, bisemigroups, binear r...

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Smarandache Non-Associative Rings

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

An associative ring is just realized or built using reals or complex; finite or infinite by defining two binary operations on it. But on the contrary when we want to define or study or even introduce a non-associative ring we need two separate algebraic structures say a commutative ring with 1 (or a field) together with a loop or a groupoid or a vector space or a linear algebra. The two non-associative well-known algebras viz. Lie algebras and Jordan algebras are mainly ...

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Smarandache Near-Rings

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

Near-rings are one of the generalized structures of rings. The study and research on near-rings is very systematic and continuous. Near-ring newsletters containing complete and updated bibliography on the subject are published periodically by a team of mathematicians (Editors: Yuen Fong, Alan Oswald, Gunter Pilz and K. C. Smith) with financial assistance from the National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan. These newsletters give an overall picture of the research carried out...

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Smarandache Rings

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

Over the past 25 years, I have been immersed in research in Algebra and more particularly in ring theory. I embarked on writing this book on Smarandache rings (Srings) specially to motivate both ring theorists and Smarandache algebraists to develop and study several important and innovative properties about S-rings. Writing this book essentially involved a good deal of reference work. As a researcher, I felt that it will be a great deal better if we thrust importance on ...

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Smarandache Loops

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

The theory of loops (groups without associativity), though researched by several mathematicians has not found a sound expression, for books, be it research level or otherwise, solely dealing with the properties of loops are absent. This is in marked contrast with group theory where books are abundantly available for all levels: as graduate texts and as advanced research books.

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Smarandache Semirings, Semifields, And Semivector Spaces

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

Smarandache notions, which can be undoubtedly characterized as interesting mathematics, has the capacity of being utilized to analyse, study and introduce, naturally, the concepts of several structures by means of extension or identification as a substructure. Several researchers around the world working on Smarandache notions have systematically carried out this study. This is the first book on the Smarandache algebraic structures that have two binary operations. Semiri...

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Groupoids and Smarandache Groupoids

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

The study of Smarandache Algebraic Structure was initiated in the year 1998 by Raul Padilla following a paper written by Florentin Smarandache called “Special Algebraic Structures”. In his research, Padilla treated the Smarandache algebraic structures mainly with associative binary operation. Since then the subject has been pursued by a growing number of researchers and now it would be better if one gets a coherent account of the basic and main results in these algebraic...

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Smarandache Notions Volume 13

By: Jack Allen

Papers concerning any of the Smarandache type functions, sequences, integer algorithms, paradoxes, Non-Euclidean geometries, conjectures, open problems, neutrosophic logic/set/probability, etc. have been selected for this volume. The

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Smarandache Notions Volume 14

By: C. Dumitresru

Papers concerning any of the Smarandache type functions, sequences, numbers, algorithms, inferior/superior f-parts, magic squares, palindromes, functional iterations, semantic paradoxes, Non-Euclidean geometries, manifolds, conjectures, open problems, algebraic structures, neutrosophy, neutrosophic logic/set/probability, hypothesis that there is no speed barrier in the universe} quantum paradoxes, etc. have been selected for this volume. Contributors are from Australia, ...

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