World Library  



Astronomy


Astronomy is a natural science that deals with the study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, nebulae, star clusters and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earth's atmosphere (such as the cosmic background radiation). It is concerned with the evolution, physics, chemistry, meteorology, and motion of celestial objects, as well as the formation and development of the universe.

 
  • Cover Image

Entropy Production and Multiple Equilibria: the Case of the Ice-al...

By: D. Paillard; B. Dubrulle; C. Herbert

Description: Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, IPSL, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, UMR 8212, Gif-sur-Yvette, France. Nonlinear feedbacks in the Earth System provide mechanisms that can prove very useful in understanding complex dynamics with relatively simple concepts. For example, the temperature and the ice cover of the planet are linked in a positive feedback which gives birth to multiple equilibria for some values of the solar constant: fully ice-covered...

Arnold, V.: Ordinary Differential Equations, Springer, New York, 1984.; Budyko, M.: The effect of solar radiation variations on the climate of the Earth, Tellus, 21, 611–619, 1969.; Cahalan, R. and North, G.: A Stability Theorem for Energy-Balance Climate Models, J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 1178–1188, 1979.; Chylek, P. and Coakley, J.: Analytical analysis of a Budyko-type climate model, J. Atmos. Sci., 32, 675–679, 1975.; Crafoord, C. and K{ä}ll{é}n, E.: A Note on the Condition ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Entropy Production and Multiple Equilibria: the Case of the Ice-al...

By: D. Paillard; B. Dubrulle; C. Herbert

Description: Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, IPSL, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, UMR 8212, Gif-sur-Yvette, France. Nonlinear feedbacks in the Earth System provide mechanisms that can prove very useful in understanding complex dynamics with relatively simple concepts. For example, the temperature and the ice cover of the planet are linked in a positive feedback which gives birth to multiple equilibria for some values of the solar constant: fully ice-covered...

Arnold, V.: Ordinary Differential Equations, Springer, New York, 1984.; Budyko, M.: The effect of solar radiation variations on the climate of the Earth, Tellus, 21, 611–619, 1969.; Cahalan, R. and North, G.: A Stability Theorem for Energy-Balance Climate Models, J. Atmos. Sci., 36, 1178–1188, 1979.; Chylek, P. and Coakley, J.: Analytical analysis of a Budyko-type climate model, J. Atmos. Sci., 32, 675–679, 1975.; Crafoord, C. and K{ä}ll{é}n, E.: A Note on the Condition ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

On the Analytic Approximation of Bulk Collision Rates of Non-spher...

By: U. Blahak; R. Buhr; A. Seifert

Description: Hans-Ertel Centre for Weather Research, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Hamburg, Germany. Analytic approximations of the binary collision rates of hydrometeors are derived for use in bulk microphysical parameterizations. Special attention is given to non-spherical hydrometeors like raindrops and snowflakes. The terminal fall velocity of these particles cannot be sufficiently well approximated by power-law relations which are used in most microphysical pa...

Abraham, F.: Functional dependence of drag coefficient of a sphere on Reynolds number, Phys. Fluids, 13, 2194–2195, 1970.; Atlas, D., Srivastava, R., and Sekhon, R.: Doppler radar characteristics of precipitation at vertical incidence, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 11, 1–35, 1973.; Baldauf, M., Seifert, A., Förstner, J., Majewski, D., and Raschendorfer, M.: Operational convective-scale numerical weather prediction with the COSMO model: description and sensitivities, Mon. We...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Development of a New Semi-empirical Parameterization for Below-clo...

By: L. Zhang; M. D. Moran; X. Wang

Description: Kellys Environmental Services, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. A parameter called the scavenging coefficient Λ is widely used in aerosol chemical transport models (CTMs) to describe below-cloud scavenging of aerosol particles by rain and snow. However, uncertainties associated with available size-resolved theoretical formulations for Λ span one to two orders of magnitude for rain scavenging and nearly three orders of magnitude for snow scavenging. Two recent ...

Seinfeld, J. H. and Pandis, S. N.: Atmospheric chemistry and physics: from air pollution to climate change, Wiley and Sons, New Jersey, 1203 pp., 2006.; Sekhon, K. S. and Srivastava, R. C.: Snow size spectra and radar reflectivity, J. Atmos. Sci., 27, 299-307, 1970.; Sekhon, K. S. and Srivastava, R. C.: Doppler radar observation of drop size in a thunderstorm, J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 983–994, 1971.; Ackerman, A. S., Toon, O. B., and Hobbs P. V.: A model for particle microphy...

Read More
  • Cover Image

A Mimetic, Semi-implicit, Forward-in-time, Finite Volume Shallow W...

By: J. Thuburn; T. Dubos; C. J. Cotter

Description: University of Exeter, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Exeter, UK. A new algorithm is presented for the solution of the shallow water equations on quasi-uniform spherical grids. It combines a mimetic finite volume spatial discretization with a Crank–Nicolson time discretization of fast waves and an accurate and conservative forward-in-time advection scheme for mass and potential vorticity (PV). The algorithm is implemented...

Arakawa, A. and Lamb, V. R.: Computational design of the basic dynamical processes of the UCLA general circulation model, in: General Circulation Models of the Atmosphere, Methods in Computational Physics, Vol. 17, edited by: Chang, J., Academic Press, San Diego, 172–265, 1977.; Cotter, C. J. and Shipton, J.: Mixed finite elements for numerical weather prediction, J. Comput. Phys., 231, 7076–7091, 2012.; Crowley, W. P.: Numerical advection experiments, Mon. Weather Rev.,...

Read More
  • Cover Image

A High-order Conservative Collocation Scheme and Its Application t...

By: X. Shen; X. Li; F. Xiao; C. Chen

Description: School of Human Settlement and Civil Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China. In this paper, an efficient and conservative collocation method is proposed and used to develop a global shallow-water model. Being a nodal type high-order scheme, the present method solves the pointwise values of dependent variables as the unknowns within each control volume. The solution points are arranged as Gauss–Legendre points to achieve high-order accuracy...

Blaise, S. and St-Cyr, A.: A dynamic hp-adaptive discontinuous Galerkin method for shallow water flows on the sphere with application to a global tsunami simulation, Mon. Weather Rev., 140, 978–996, 2012.; Chen, C. G. and Xiao, F.: Shallow water model on cubed-sphere by multi-moment finite volume method, J. Comput. Phys., 227, 5019–5044, 2008.; Chen, C. G., Li, X. L., Shen, X. S., and Xiao, F.: Global shallow water models based on multi-moment constrained finite volume m...

Read More
  • Cover Image

A Mimetic, Semi-implicit, Forward-in-time, Finite Volume Shallow ...

By: T. Dubos; C. J. Cotter; J. Thuburn

Description: University of Exeter, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, Exeter, UK. A new algorithm is presented for the solution of the shallow water equations on quasi-uniform spherical grids. It combines a mimetic finite volume spatial discretization with a Crank–Nicolson time discretization of fast waves and an accurate and conservative forward-in-time advection scheme for mass and potential vorticity (PV). The algorithm is implemented...

Arakawa, A. and Lamb, V. R.: Computational design of the basic dynamical processes of the UCLA general circulation model, in: General Circulation Models of the Atmosphere, Methods in Computational Physics, vol 17, edited by: Chang, J., Academic Press, San Diego, 172–265, 1977.; Cotter, C. J. and Shipton, J.: Mixed finite elements for numerical weather prediction, J. Comput. Phys., 231, 7076–7091, 2012.; Crowley, W. P.: Numerical advection experiments, Mon. Weather Rev., ...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Modelling Atmospheric Dry Deposition in Urban Areas Using an Urban...

By: C. Seigneur; L. Musson-genon; Y. Roustan; N. Cherin

Description: CEREA, Joint Laboratory École des Ponts ParisTech and EDF R&D, Université Paris-Est, 77455 Marne-la-Vallée, France. Atmospheric dry deposition is typically modelled using an average roughness length, which depends on land use. This classical roughness-length approach cannot account for the spatial variability of dry deposition in complex settings such as urban areas. Urban canopy models have been developed to parametrise momentum and heat transfer...

Hamdi, R. and Schayes, G.: Improving the martilli's urban boundary layer scheme: Off-line validation over different urban surfaces, NATO-Chal. M., 6, 737–739, 2007.; Harman, I. N., Barlow, J. F., and Belcher, S. E.: Scalar fluxes from urban street canyons, Part II: Model, Bound.-Lay. Meteor., 113, 387–410, 2004.; de Jaeger, C., Cherin, P., Fraoucene, N., and Voronska, E.: Place, intérêt et danger des produits phytosanitaires, Médecine & Longévité, 4, 59–67, 2012.; Gregor...

Read More
  • Cover Image

A New Multiscale Air Quality Transport Model (Fluidity, 4.1.9) Usi...

By: Z. Wang; F. Fang; J. Xiang; J. Zheng; C. C. Pain; J. Zhu

Description: State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China. A new anisotropic hr-adaptive mesh technique has been applied to modelling of multiscale transport phenomena, which is based on a discontinuous Galerkin/control volume discretization on unstructured meshes. Over existing air quality models typically based on static-structured grids using ...

Alapaty, K., Mathur, R., and Odman, T.: Intercomparison of spatial interpolation schemes for use in nested grid models, Mon. Weather Rev., 126, 243–249, 1998.; AMCG: Fluidity Manual, Applied Modelling and Computation Group, Imperial College London, 2014.; Baker, C., Buchan, A., Pain, C., Farrell, P., Eaton, M., and Warner, P.: Multimesh anisotropic adaptivity for the Boltzmann transport equation, Ann. Nucl. Energy, 53, 411–426, 2013.; Behrens, J.: Adaptive Atmospheric Mo...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Modeling Geophysical Complexity: a Case for Geometric Determinism ...

By: B. Sivakumar; C. E. Puente

Description: Department of Land, Air & Water Resources, University of California, Davis, USA. It has been customary in the last few decades to employ stochastic models to represent complex data sets encountered in geophysics, particularly in hydrology. This article reviews a deterministic geometric procedure to data modeling, one that represents whole data sets as derived distributions of simple multifractal measures via fractal functions. It is shown how such a pro...

Barnsley, M. F.: Fractals Everywhere, Academic Press, San Diego, USA, 1988.; Maragos, P.: Pattern spectrum and multiscale shape representation, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell., 11(7), 701–716, 1989.; Lovejoy, S. and Schertzer, D.: Multifractals, universality classes and satellite and radar measurements of cloud and rain fields, J. Geophys. Res. 95, 2021–2034, 1990.; Meneveau, C. and Sreenivasan, K. R.: Simple multifractal cascade model for fully developed turbu...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Observed Drought and Wetness Trends in Europe: an Update : Volume ...

By: K. Fraedrich; A. Sutera; I. Bordi

Description: Department of Physics, University of Rome La Sapienza, Italy. Linear and nonlinear trends of drought and wetness are analysed in terms of the gridded Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) determined from monthly precipitation in Europe (NCEP/NCAR). In characterizing the meteorological and hydrological aspects, the index is computed on a seasonal and on a bi-annual time scale. Two datasets are compared: one from 1949 to 1997 and the other one includes t...

Wilhite, D. A.: Combating Drought through Preparedness, Nat. Resour. Forum, 26, 275–285, 2002.; Blender, R. and Fraedrich, K.: Long term memory of the hydrological cycle and river runoffs in China in a high resolution climate model, Int. J. Climatol., 26, 1547–1565, 2006.; Bordi, I. and Sutera, A.: Fifty years of precipitation: some spatially remote teleconnnections, Water Resour. Manag., 15, 247–280, 2001.; Bordi, I. and Sutera, A.: An analysis of drought in Italy in th...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Preface Advances in Land Surface Hydrological Processes – Field Ob...

By: W. Wagner; J. Wen; Z. Su

Description: International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Hengelosestraat 99, P.O. Box 6, 7500 AA Enschede, The Netherlands. No abstract available.

Alkhaier, F., Schotting, R. J., and Su, Z.: A qualitative description of shallow groundwater effect on surface temperature of bare soil, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 1749–1756, 2009.; Gao, Z., Lenschow, D. H., He, Z., and Zhou, M.: Seasonal and diurnal variations in moisture, heat and CO2 fluxes over a typical steppe prairie in Inner Mongolia, China, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 987–998, 2009.; Jia, L., Xi, G., Liu, S., Huang, C., Yan, Y., and Liu, G.: Regional estimat...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Impacts of Inhomogeneous Landscapes in Oasis Interior on the Oasis...

By: Y. Ao; S. Lu; L. Wen; Y. Bao; T. Zhang; S. Li; X. Meng; S. Luo

Description: Key laboratory of Land Surface Process and Climate Change in Cold and Arid Regions, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Science, 320 Donggang West Road, 730000 Lanzhou, Gansu, China. The impacts of inhomogeneity of the oasis interior on the oasis self-maintenance mechanism are investigated by using the mesoscale model MM5 (the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University National Center for Atmospher...

Ao, Y.: The study of land surface processes and climate effect over the desert-oasis, PhD Thesis, Cold and Arid Reg. Environ. and Eng. Res. Inst., Chin. Acad. of Sci., Lanzhou, China., 39–53, 2006.; Chen, F. and Avissar, R.: The impact of land-surface wetness heterogeneity on mesoscale heat fluxes, J. Appl. Meteorol., 33, 1323–1340, 1994.; Baidya Roy, S. and Avissar, R.: Impact of land use/land cover change on regional hydrometeorology in Amazonia, J. Geophys. Res., 107,...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Teleconnection Analysis of Runoff and Soil Moisture Over the Pearl...

By: J. Chen; B. Sivakumar; J. Niu

Description: Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China. This study explores the teleconnection of two climatic patterns, namely the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), with hydrological processes over the Pearl River basin in southern China, particularly on a sub-basin-scale basis. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model is used to simulate the daily hydrological processes over t...

Asquith, D.: Learning to live with statistics: from concept to practice, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, Colorado, 2008.; Behera, S. K., Krishnan, S., and Yamagata, T.: Unusual ocean-atmosphere conditions in the tropical Indian Ocean during 1994, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 3001–3004, 1999.; Chen, J. and Kumar, P.: Role of terrestrial memory in modulating ENSO impacts in North America, J. Climate, 15, 3569–3585, 2002.; Chen, J. and Kumar, P.: A modelling study of the ENSO influence...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Linkages Between Enso/Pdo Signals and Precipitation, Streamflow in...

By: C. Liu; W. Liu; H. Wang; G. Fu; R. Ouyang; L. Hu

Description: Key Laboratory of Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China. This paper investigates the single and combined impacts of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on precipitation and streamflow in China over the last century. Results indicate that the precipitation and streamflow overall decrease dur...

Hao, Z. X., Zheng, J. Y., and Ge, Q. S.: Precipitation cycles in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River (1736–2000), J. Geogr. Sci., 18, 17–25, 2008.; Liu, Y. Q. and Ding, Y. H.: Reappraisal of the influence of ENSO events on seasonal precipitation and temperature in China, Sci. Atmos. Sin., 19, 200–208, 1995.; Andreoli, R. V. and Kayano, M. T.: ENSO-related rainfall anomalies in South America and associated circulation features during warm and cold Pacific dec...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Modeling the Snow Surface Temperature with a One-layer Energy Bala...

By: C. H. Luce; D. G. Tarboton; J. You

Description: School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska – Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583, USA. Snow surface temperature is a key control on and result of dynamically coupled energy exchanges at the snow surface. The snow surface temperature is the result of the balance between external forcing (incoming radiation) and energy exchanges above the surface that depend on surface temperature (outgoing longwave radiation and turbulent fluxes) and the transport o...

Anderson, E. A.: A Point Energy and Mass Balance Model of a Snow Cover. NOAA Technical Report NWS 19, US Department of Commerce, 150 pp., 1976.; Berg, P. W, and McGregor, J. L.: Elementary Partial Differential Equations, Holden-Day, Oakland, 1966.; Blöschl, G. and Kirnbauer, R.: Point snowmelt models with different degrees of complexity – internal processes, J. Hydrol., 129, 127–147, 1991.; Bras, R. L.: Hydrology, an Introduction to Hydrologic Science, Addison-Wesley: Re...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Teleconnection Analysis of Runoff and Soil Moisture Over the Pearl...

By: J. Niu; J. Chen; B. Sivakumar

Description: Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China. This study explores the teleconnection of two climatic patterns, namely the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), with hydrological processes over the Pearl River basin in South China. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model is used to simulate the daily hydrological processes over the basin for the study period 1952–200...

Asquith, D.: Learning to Live with Statistics: From Concept to Practice, Lynne Rienner, Boulder, Colorado, 2008.; Behera, S. K., Krishnan, S., and Yamagata, T.: Unusual ocean-atmosphere conditions in the tropical Indian Ocean during 1994, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 3001–3004, 1999.; Chen, J. and Kumar, P.: Role of terrestrial memory in modulating ENSO impacts in North America, J. Climate, 15, 3569–3585, 2002.; Chen, J. and Kumar, P.: A modelling study of the ENSO influence...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Linkages Between Enso/Pdo Signals and Precipitation, Streamflow in...

By: C. Liu; W. Liu; H. Wang; G. Fu; R. Ouyang; L. Hu

Description: Key Laboratory of Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. This paper investigates the single and combined impacts of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on precipitation and streamflow in China over the last century. Results indicate that the precipitation and streamflow overall decrease d...

Andreoli, R. V. and Kayano, M. T.: ENSO-related rainfall anomalies in South America and associated circulation features during warm and cold Pacific decadal oscillation regimes, Int. J. Climatol., 25, 2017–2030, 2005.; Anthony, S. and Stewart, W. F.: On the identification of ENSO-induced rainfall and runoff variability: a comparison of methods and indices, Hydrolog. Sci. J., 46, 715–727, 2001.; Barnett, T. P., Pierce, D. W., Latif, M., Dommenget, D., and Saravanan, R.: I...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Comparison of Soil Moisture Fields Estimated by Catchment Modellin...

By: S. Sinclair; W. Wagner; G. Pegram; A. Bartsch; T. Vischel

Description: Civil Engineering Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa. The paper compares two independent approaches to estimate soil moisture at the regional scale over a 4625 km2 catchment (Liebenbergsvlei, South Africa). The first estimate is derived from a physically-based hydrological model (TOPKAPI). The second estimate is derived from the scatterometer on board on the European Remote Sensing satellite (ERS). Results show a...

Aubert D., Loumagne C., and Oudin L.: Sequential assimilation of soil moisture and streamflow data in a conceptual rainfall-runoff model, J. Hydrol., 280, 145–161, 2003.; Beven, K.: TOPMODEL: a critique, Hydrol. Process, 11(9), 1069–1086, 1997.; Beven K. and Kirkby M.: A physically-based variable contributing area model of basin hydrology, Hydrol. Sci. Bull., 24, 43–69, 1979.; Blyth, E.: Modelling soil moisture for a grassland and a woodland site in south-east England, H...

Read More
  • Cover Image

Screening of Sustainable Groundwater Sources for Integration Into ...

By: T. Y. Stigter; M. C. Cunha; L. Ribeiro; J. Nascimento; L. M. Nunes; J. Vieira; J. P. Monteiro; H. Lucas

Description: Geo-Systems Centre/CVRM, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal. This paper reports on the qualitative and quantitative screening of groundwater sources for integration into the public water supply system of the Algarve, Portugal. The results are employed in a decision support system currently under development for an integrated water resources management scheme in the region. Such a scheme is crucial for several reasons, including ...

Addiscott,~T.: Perspective – is it nitrate that threatens life or the scare about nitrate?, J. Sci. Food Agr., 86, 2005–2009, 2006.; Alley,~W M. and Leake,~S A.: The journey from safe yield to sustainability, Ground Water, 42, 12–16, 2004.; Almeida,~C.: Hidrogeologia do Algarve Central, Ph.D., Univ. de Lisboa, Lisbon, 1985.; Almeida,~C., Mendonça,~J J L., Jesus,~M R., and Gomes,~A J.: Sistemas aquíferos de Portugal Continental, Rep. INAG, Lisbon, Portugal, 2000.; Backman...

Read More
 
Records: 36401 - 36420 of 36,495 - Pages: 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Fair are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.