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Agriculture


Agriculture is the production, processing, marketing, and use of foods, fibers and byproducts from plant crops and animals. Agriculture was the key development that led to the rise of human civilization; with the domestication of animals and plants, creating food surpluses that enabled the development of more densely populated and stratified societies. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science.

 
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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2000 ; Issue 92415301...

By: R. Cary

Medical Reference Publication

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This CICAD on phenylhydrazine was based on a review of human health concerns (primarily occupational) prepared by the United Kingdom’s Health and Safety Executive (Brooke et al., 1997) and a report prepared for the German Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA, 1995). Hence, this document focuses on exposures via routes relevant to occupational settings but also contains environmental information. Data identified as ...

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2000 ; Issue 92415302...

By: S. Kristensen

Medical Reference Publication

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This CICAD was based principally on the assessments of the occupational health and environmental effects of 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123) completed under the Australian National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS) and published in March 1996 (NICNAS, 1996) and July 1999 (NICNAS, 1999). Relevant information that has become available since completion of the NICNAS reports or that was identified in a comprehe...

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2000 ; Issue 92415302...

By: R. Benson

Medical Reference Publication

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This CICAD on chloral hydrate was prepared by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and is based on the US EPA’s Toxicological review on chloral hydrate (US EPA, 2000). Scientific literature identified as of March 1999 was included. Information on the nature of the review processes and the availability of the source document is presented in Appendix 3. Information on the peer review of this CICAD is presented in Appendix 4. This CICAD was appr...

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2000 ; Issue 92415302...

By: J. Sekizawa

Medical Reference Publication

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This CICAD on diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) was prepared by the National Institute of Health Sciences, Japan, in collaboration with the National Center for Environmental Assessment, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The CICAD was based principally on the reviews of the Japan Society for Occupational Health (JSOH, 1994) and the US EPA (1998) for the toxicological evaluation and the European Union (EU, 1999) for the environmental assessmen...

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2001 ; Issue 92415302...

By: A. Boehncke

Medical Reference Publication

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This CICAD on the isomers 2-, 3-, and 4-nitrophenol was prepared by the Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Aerosol Research, Hanover, Germany. It was based on reviews compiled by the German Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA, 1992) and the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR, 1992) to assess the potential effects of 2- and 4-nitrophenol on the environment and on human health. Data iden...

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2001 ; Issue 92415302...

By: M. Costigan

Medical Reference Publication

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This CICAD on vanadium pentoxide and other inorganic vanadium compounds was based on a review of human health concerns (primarily occupational) prepared by the United Kingdom’s Health and Safety Executive (HSE, in press). This review focuses on exposures via routes relevant to occupational settings, but it also contains environmental information. Data identified as of November 1998 were covered. A further literature search was performed up to May 199...

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2001 ; Issue 92415303...

By: Robert M. Bruce

Medical Reference Publication

Concise International Chemical Assessment Documents (CICADs) are the latest in a family of publications from the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) — a cooperative programme of the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Labour Organization (ILO), and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). CICADs join the Environmental Health Criteria documents (EHCs) as authoritative documents on the risk assessment of chemicals. International Chemica...

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2001 ; Issue 92415303...

By: Harlal Choudhury

Medical Reference Publication

Concise International Chemical Assessment Documents (CICADs) are the latest in a family of publications from the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) — a cooperative programme of the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Labour Organization (ILO), and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). CICADs join the Environmental Health Criteria documents (EHCs) as authoritative documents on the risk assessment of chemicals. International Chemica...

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2001 ; Issue 92415303...

By: Bengt Akesson

Medical Reference Publication

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This CICAD on N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone was based primarily on a review prepared for the Nordic Expert Group (Åkesson, 1994) and on a review of human health concerns prepared by the United Kingdom’s Health and Safety Executive (HSE, 1997). For data on environmental fate and behaviour, no comprehensive document of the same status was identified. Instead, HSDB (1997) was used as an additional source document. Supplementary unvalidated data, mainly ecotoxi...

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2001 ; Issue 92415303...

By: Richard Cary

Medical Reference Publication

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This CICAD on methyl cyanoacrylate and ethyl cyanoacrylate was based on a review of human health concerns (primarily occupational) prepared by the United Kingdom’s Health and Safety Executive (HSE) (Cary et al., 2000). Hence, this document focuses on exposures via routes relevant to occupational settings. Data identified as of September 1999 were covered. A further literature search was performed up to February 2000 to identify any extra information ...

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2003 ; Issue 92415423...

By: R. Lambert

Medical Reference Publication

Over recent years OECD and WHO have been collaborating in a range of areas, including on the OECD Health Project which aims to analyse, measure and improve the performance of health systems in OECD countries. This DAC Reference Document dedicated to health and poverty in developing countries is another example of the fruitful collaboration between our two institutions. We have decided to publish it jointly in order to ensure a wide readership in both the development and ...

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2003 ; Issue 92415623...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

Over recent years OECD and WHO have been collaborating in a range of areas, including on the OECD Health Project which aims to analyse, measure and improve the performance of health systems in OECD countries. This DAC Reference Document dedicated to health and poverty in developing countries is another example of the fruitful collaboration between our two institutions. We have decided to publish it jointly in order to ensure a wide readership in both the development and ...

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World Health Organization : Technical Report Series, No. 646: Worl...

By: K. Kosaka

Medical Reference Publication

1. INTRODUCTION Diabetes mellitus is a universal health problem affecting human societies at all stages of development. At least 30 million people are involved throughout the world, and the numbers of cases reported are increasing rapidly with the aging of populations, changes in lifestyle, and improvement in ascertainment. Although a more prominent health problem in developed countries, it is erroneous to consider diabetes a disease of affluent societies. Epidemiologica...

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United States Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Series

By: Environmental Protection Agency

Excerpt: Mission Statement and Agency Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i-1 EPA Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i-2 Guiding Principles . . . . . . . ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .i-4 New Approaches to Planning and Budgeting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .i-5 Organization for the Annual Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .i-6 Overview of the Plan. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .i-9

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Using Coal Ashi in Highway Construction : A Guide to Benefits and ...

By: Environmental Protection Agency

Excerpt: Glossary: Alkali-Silicate Reactivity: The reaction between the alkalies (sodium and potassium) in Portland cement with certain siliceous rocks and minerals, such as opaline chert, strained quartz, and acidic volcanic glass, present in some aggregates; the products of the reaction can cause abnormal expansion and cracking of concrete in service. Class F fly ash is used in concrete to reduce the occurrence of alkali-silica reactivity.

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Legionella : Human Health Criteria Document

By: Environmental Protection Agency

Excerpt: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: This document was prepared for the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (OGWDW) by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) under contract with ICF Consulting Group (Contract No. 68-C6-0029). Overall planning and management for the preparation of this document was provided by Latisha S. Parker, MS of OST. EPA acknowledges the valuable contributions of those who reviewed this document. They include Li...

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Mercury Study Report to Congress

By: Environmental Protection Agency

Excerpt: This Mercury Study is a Report to Congress prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. It fulfills the requirements of section 112(n)(1)(B) of the Clear Air Act, as amended in 1990. The Report provides an assessment of the magnitude of U.S. mercury emissions by source, the health and environmental implications of those emissions, and the availability and cost of control technologies. As the state-of-the-science for mercury is continuously and rapidly e...

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Mercury Study Report to Congress

By: Environmental Protection Agency

Excerpt: Section 112(n)(1)(B) of the Clean Air Act (CAA), as amended in 1990, requires the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) to submit a study on atmospheric mercury emissions to Congress. The sources of emissions that must be studied include electric utility steam generating units, municipal waste combustion units and other sources, including area sources. Congress directed that the Mercury Study evaluate many aspects of mercury emissions, including the ra...

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Report for Congress Received through the Crs Web

By: Jonathan E. Sanford

Export and Trade Government Reference Document:

Excerpt: Iraq's Economy: Past, Present, Future Summary: For most of its history, the government of Iraq has played an active role stimulating and directing the Iraqi economy. This pattern was most pronounced during the recent regime of Saddam Hussein, which was at root a centrally-directed command economy with some trappings of market economics and crony capitalism. Iraq?s industrial sector was created, in large part, as a result of government efforts to diversify the ec...

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Report for Congress Received through the Crs Web

By: Jonathan E. Sanford

Export and Trade Government Reference Document:

Excerpt: Iraq's Economy: Past, Present, Future Summary: For most of its history, the government of Iraq has played an active role stimulating and directing the Iraqi economy. This pattern was most pronounced during the recent regime of Saddam Hussein, which was at root a centrally-directed command economy with some trappings of market economics and crony capitalism. Iraq?s industrial sector was created, in large part, as a result of government efforts to diversify the ec...

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