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Literature


Literature is the art of written works, and is not bound to published sources. Literally translated, the word literature means 'acquaintance with letters' (as in the 'arts and letters'). The two most basic written literary categories include fiction and non fiction.

 
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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2004 ; Issue 92415915...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

This publication focuses on one component of a comprehensive HIV prevention programme: community- based outreach. Since the HIV epidemic began, community-based outreach has been a feasible and effective public health strategy to reach hard-to-reach, hidden and out-of-treatment IDU populations, to provide them with the means to change their behaviour and to reduce their risks for acquiring or transmitting HIV. Additional publications on evidence for action in preventing H...

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World Health Organization Publication : Year 2006 ; Issue 92415944...

By: Deborah Kioy, Dr.

Medical Reference Publication

This document is the revised version of the draft handbook Quality standards in basic biomedical research (TDR/PRD/QSBR/01.1), published in 2001. The draft handbook was based on the deliberations of a specialized scientific working group (SWG) convened by the UNDP/World Bank/World Health Organization Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR).1 The SWG, composed of independent scientific experts, met in Geneva 4-6 September 2000 to discuss var...

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Toxicological Review of 1,1-Dichloroethylene

By: Robert Benson

Excerpt: The purpose of this Toxicological Review is to provide scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment in IRIS pertaining to chronic exposure to 1,1- dichloroethylene. It is not intended to be a comprehensive treatise on the chemical or toxicological nature of 1,1-dichloroethylene. In Section 6, EPA has characterized its overall confidence in the quantitative and qualitative aspects of hazard and dose response. Matters considered in ...

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Toxicological Review of Methyl Ethyl Ketone

By: Susan Rieth

Excerpt: The purpose of this Toxicological Review is to provide scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment in IRIS pertaining to chronic exposure to methyl ethyl ketone. It is not intended to be a comprehensive treatise on the chemical or toxicological nature of methyl ethyl ketone.

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Toxicological Review of Phenol

By: Monica A. Barron

Excerpt: FOREWORD: The purpose of this Toxicological Review is to provide scientific support and rationale for the hazard identification and dose-response assessment in IRIS pertaining to chronic exposure to phenol. It is not intended to be a comprehensive treatise on the chemical or toxicological nature of phenol.

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Toxicological Review of Xylenes

By: Environmental Protection Agency

Excerpt: This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency policy and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. Note: This document may undergo revisions in the future. The most up-to-date version will be made available electronically via the IRIS Home Page at http://www.epa.gov/iris.

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Achieving Results through Commitment and Collaboration

By: James J. Jones

Excerpt: Providing Pesticide Training to Regulators In an effort to fulfill training needs of regional, state, and tribal regulators on pesticide regulatory issues, OPP hosted five Pesticide Regulatory Education Program (PREP) courses in FY 2003. Representatives from more than 23 states attended the courses on the reregistration and worker protection programs, bioengineered crops and invasive species, West Nile virus, homeland security, and state FIFRA laboratory issues.

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Toxicological Review of Acrolein

By: Environmental Protection Agency

Excerpt: This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency policy and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. Note: This document may undergo revisions in the future. The most up-to-date version will be made available electronically via the IRIS Home Page at http://www.epa.gov/iris.

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Toxicological Review of Quinoline

By: Environmental Protection Agency

Excerpt: This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency policy and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. This document may undergo revisions in the future. The most up-to-date version will be available electronically via the IRIS Home Page at http://www.epa.gov/iris.

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Toxicological Review of 2-Methylnaphthalene

By: Environmental Protection Agency

Excerpt: This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency policy and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. Note: This document may undergo revisions in the future. The most up-to-date version will be made available electronically via the IRIS Home Page at http://www.epa.gov/iris.

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Air Toxics Research Strategy

By: Environmental Protection Agency

Excerpt: The EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) has developed a draft Air Toxics 5 Research Strategy (ATRS). This strategy was developed to assist in improving our 6 understanding of air toxics and to manage effectively and efficiently our resources for air toxics 7 research. 8 9 National Air Toxics Assessments 10 The ATRS is needed to address the uncertainty in EPA’s National Air Toxics Assessments 11 (NATA). As explained in Chapter 1, these assessments will...

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Preliminary Particulate Matter Mass Concentrations Associated with...

By: C. Rodes

Excerpt: DISCLAIMER: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through its Office of Research and Development partially funded and collaborated in the research described here under contract numbers 68-D2-0134 (QST Environmental), 68-D2-0187 (SRA Technologies, Inc), 68-D-99-012, 68- D5-0040 (Research Triangle Institute) and cooperative agreement numbers CR-827159 (Harvard School of Public Health), CR-827177 (University of Washington), CR-827164 (New York University), CR-82...

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Carcinogenic Effects of Benzene : An Update

By: Environmental Protection Agency

Excerpt: The major issue addressed in this document involves the nature and magnitude of the inhalation risk of cancer to humans exposed to low levels of benzene. Occupational studies continue to provide the bulk of evidence of benzene’s carcinogenicity. Workers are exposed at much higher levels than is the general public. This document reconfirms that benzene is a “known” human carcinogen by all routes of exposure. This finding is supported by evidence from human epidem...

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Development Document for the Proposed Revisions to the National Po...

By: Carol M. Browner

Excerpt: This report has been reviewed and approved for publication by the Engineering and Analysis Division, Office of Science and Technology. This report was prepared with the support of Tetra Tech, Inc., and Eastern Research Group, Inc., under the direction and review of the Office of Science and Technology. Neither the United States government nor any of its employees, contractors, subcontractors, or other employees makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assume...

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Mercury Study Report to Congress

By: Environmental Protection Agency

Excerpt: This Mercury Study is a Report to Congress prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. It fulfills the requirements of section 112(n)(1)(B) of the Clear Air Act, as amended in 1990. The Report provides an assessment of the magnitude of U.S. mercury emissions by source, the health and environmental implications of those emissions, and the availability and cost of control technologies. As the state-of-the-science for mercury is continuously and rapidly e...

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Mercury Study Report to Congress

By: Environmental Protection Agency

Excerpt: Section 112(n)(1)(B) of the Clean Air Act (CAA), as amended in 1990, requires the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to submit a study on atmospheric mercury emissions to Congress. The sources of emissions that must be studied include electric utility steam generating units, municipal waste combustion units and other sources, including area sources. Congress directed that the Mercury Study evaluate many aspects of mercury emissions, including the rate an...

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Mercury Study Report to Congress

By: Environmental Protection Agency

Excerpt: The following conclusions are presented in approximate order of degree of certainty in the conclusion, based on the quality of the underlying database. The conclusions progress from those with greater certainty to those with lesser certainty. Consumption of fish is the dominant pathway of exposure to methylmercury for fishconsuming humans. There is a great deal of variability among individuals in these populations with respect to food sources and fish consumptio...

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Mercury Study Report to Congress

By: Environmental Protection Agency

Excerpt: Exposure was characterized in a progressive manner, with varying reliance on computer models for mercury deposition and fate. The objective of this analysis was to characterize the extent to which piscivorous wildlife are exposed to mercury originating from airborne emissions. Details on exposure assessment inputs, methods and results can be found in Volumes III and IV of this Report. Three general approaches were used, which are described as follows.

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Characterization of Human Health and Wildlife Risks from Mercury E...

By: Environmental Protection Agency

Excerpt: A study of Iraqi populations by Marsh et al. (1987) was chosen as the most appropriate study for determination of an RfD protective of a putative sensitive subpopulation, namely infants born to mothers exposed to methylmercury during gestation. This report described neurologic abnormalities observed in progeny of women who consumed bread prepared from methylmercury-treated seed grain while pregnant. Among the signs noted in the infants exposed during fetal devel...

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Mercury Study Report to Congress Volume VIII : An Evaluation of Me...

By: Environmental Protection Agency

Excerpt: Section 112(n)(1)(B) of the Clean Air Act (CAA), as amended in 1990, requires the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) to submit a study on atmospheric mercury emissions to Congress. The sources of emissions that must be studied include electric utility steam generating units, municipal waste combustion units and other sources, including area sources. Congress directed that the Mercury Study evaluate many aspects of mercury emissions, including the ra...

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