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Numerical Implementation and Oceanographic Application of the Gibb...

By: V. Tchijov; R. Feistel; C. Guder; W. Wagner

Description: Baltic Sea Research Institute, Seestraße 15, D-18119 Warnemünde, Germany. The 2004 Gibbs thermodynamic potential function of naturally abundant water ice is based on much more experimental data than its predecessors, is therefore significantly more accurate and reliable, and for the first time describes the entire temperature and pressure range of existence of this ice phase. It is expressed in the ITS-90 temperature scale and is consistent with the cur...

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Reality Checks on Microbial Food Web Interactions in Dilution Expe...

By: A. Calbet; M. R. Landry

Description: Integrative Oceanography Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0227, USA. Dolan and McKeon (2005) have recently criticized microzooplankton grazing rate estimates by the dilution approach as being systematically biased and significantly overestimated. Their argument is based on observed mortality responses of ciliated protozoa to reduced food in several coastal experiment...

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High Resolution 3-d Temperature and Salinity Fields Derived from i...

By: S. Guinehut; P.-y. Le Traon; G. Larnicol; A.-l. Dhomps

Description: CLS-Space Oceanography Division, Ramonville Saint-Agne, France. This paper describes an observation-based approach that combines efficiently the main components of the global ocean observing system using statistical methods. Accurate but sparse in situ temperature and salinity profiles (mainly from Argo for the last 10 years) are merged with the lower accuracy but high-resolution synthetic data derived from altimeter and sea surface temperature satellit...

Antonov, J. I., Seidov, D., Boyer, T. P., Locarnini, R. A., Mishonov, A. V., Garcia, H. E., Baranova, O. K., Zweng, M. M., and Johnson, D. R.: World Ocean Atlas 2009, Volume 2: Salinity. S. Levitus, Ed. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 69, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 184 pp., 2010.; AVISO: SSALTO/DUACS User Handbook: (M)SLA and (M)ADT near-real time and delayed time products, SALP-MU-P-EA- 21065-CLS, ed. 2.9, 73 pp., 2012.; Buongiorno Nardelli, B., Pascual, A., G...

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Distribution and Transport Processes of Marine Particulate Matter ...

By: G. Karakas; G. Fischer; V. Ratmeyer; R. Schlitzer; N. Nowald; R. A. Davenport; G. Wefer

Description: University of Bremen, Department of Geosciences, Klagenfurterstrasse, 28359 Bremen. In this study, we present vertical particle profiles acquired with the deep-sea camera system ParCa. The profiles were obtained during three campaigns in the spring seasons of 2001–2003 off NW-Africa (Cape Blanc). The camera profiles showed interannual and spatial variabilities regarding the particle concentrations in the ocean surface which were related to changes in th...

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Mechanisms Controlling Primary and New Production in a Global Ecos...

By: B. De Cuevas; G. A. Nurser; A. C. Coward; E. E. Popova; T. R. Anderson

Description: National Oceanographic Centre, Southampton, UK. The use of 6 h, daily, weekly and monthly atmospheric forcing resulted in dramatically different predictions of plankton productivity in a global 3-D coupled physical-biogeochemical model.

Resolving the diurnal cycle of atmospheric variability by use of 6 h forcing, and hence also diurnal variability in UML depth, produced the largest difference, reducing predicted global primary and new produc...

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On Available Energy in the Ocean and Its Application to the Barent...

By: D. J. Webb; R. C. Levine

Description: Department of Geography, University of Sheffield, UK. Following meteorological practice the definition of available potential energy in the ocean is conventionally defined in terms of the properties of the global ocean. However there is also a requirement for a localised definition, for example the energy released when shelf water cascades down a continental shelf in the Arctic and enters a boundary current.

In this note we start from first pr...

Webb, D., de~Cuevas, B., and Coward, A.: The first main run of the OCCAM global ocean model, Tech. Rep 34, Southampton Oceanography Centre, 44 pp., 1998.; %Aksenov, Y., Bacon, S., and Coward, A.: The North Atlantic Inflow into the % Nordic Seas and Arctic Ocean:A High-resolution Model Study, Deep-Sea % Res. Part I, submitted\blackbox\bf status?, 2007.; Chubarian, E., Grigorian, H., Poghosyan, G., and Blaschke, D.: Deconfinement transition in rotating compact stars, http:...

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Comparison of the Fall Rate and Structure of Recent T-7 Xbt Manufa...

By: S. Kizu; C. Sukigara; K. Hanawa

Description: Physical Oceanography Laboratory, Department of Geophysics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aza Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578, Japan. The fall rate of recent T-7 expendable bathythermograph (XBT; 760 m) is evaluated based on a series of concurrent measurement with a calibrated Conductivity Temperature Depth profiler (CTD) in the sea east of Japan. An emphasis is placed on comparing the fall rates of T-7 produced b...

Anderson, E. R.: Expendable bathythermograph (XBT) accuracy studies – final report for period May 1971–December 1979, NOSC-TR-550, Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, CA, USA, 212 pp., 1980.; Biggs, D. C.: Nutrients, plankton, and productivity in a warm-core ring in the western Gulf of Mexico, J. Geophys. Res., 97(C2), 2143–2154, 1992.; Baker, D. J.: Ocean instruments and experiment design, in: Evolution of Physical Oceanography, edited by: Warren, B. A. and Wunsch, C...

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A Comparison Between Vertical Motions Measured by Adcp and Inferre...

By: H. Van Haren

Description: Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, The Netherlands. Combined vertical current (w) and thermistor string data demonstrate that high-, near-buoyancy frequency internal wave trains along a pycnocline in a flat-bottom shelf sea consist for 2 periods of a dominant mode-1 non-linear part, while thereafter mainly of linear [mode-2, quadrupled frequency] waves, to first order. In a simple [linear] heat budget the ...

Amen, R. and Maxworthy, T.: The gravitational collapse of a mixed region into a linearly stratified fluid, J. Fluid Mech., 96, 65–80, 1980.; Davis, R. E. and Acrivos, A.: Solitary internal waves in deep water, J. Fluid Mech., 29, 593–607, 1967.; Hallock, Z. R. and Field, R. L.: Internal-wave energy fluxes on the New Jersey Shelf, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35, 3–12, 2005.; Helfrich, K. R.: Internal solitary wave breaking and run-up on a uniform slope, J. Fluid Mech., 243, 133–1...

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Formulation of an Ocean Model for Global Climate Simulations : Vol...

By: A. Rosati; M. J. Spelman; J. L. Russell; R. Gerdes; B. L. Samuels; S. M. Griffies; A. Gnanadesikan; K. W. Dixon; J. P. Dunne; M. J. Harrison; R. Zhang; M. Winton

Description: NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, USA. This paper summarizes the formulation of the ocean component to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's (GFDL) climate model used for the 4th IPCC Assessment (AR4) of global climate change. In particular, it reviews the numerical schemes and physical parameterizations that make up an ocean climate model and how these schemes are pieced together for use in a state-of-the-art climate model. ...

Adcroft, A. and Campin, J.-M.: Rescaled height coordinates for accurate representation of free-surface flows in ocean circulation models, Ocean Modelling, 7, 269-284, 2004.; Adcroft, A., Hill, C., and Marshall, J.: Representation of topography by shaved cells in a height coordinate ocean model, Monthly Weather Review, 125, 2293-2315, 1997.; Anderson, J L., Balaji, V., Broccoli, A J., Cooke, W F., Delworth, T L., Dixon, K W., Donnor, L J., Dunne, K A., Freidenreich, S M.,...

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On Contribution of Horizontal and Intra-layer Convection to the Fo...

By: I. Chubarenko; N. Demchenko

Description: P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS, Atlantic Branch, 236 000 Prospect Mira, 1, Kaliningrad, Russia. Seasonal cascades down the coastal slopes and intra-layer convection are considered as the two additional mechanisms contributing to the Baltic Sea cold intermediate layer (CIL) formation along with conventional seasonal vertical mixing. Field measurements are presented, reporting for the first time the possibility of denser water formation and cas...

Chubarenko, I. P., Demchenko, N. Y., and Hutter, K.: Horizontal convection induced by surface cooling over incline: laboratory experiment, Proc. International Conference Fluxes and Structures in Fluids, Moscow, Russia, 27–29, 2005.; Bennett, J. R.: Thermally driven lake currents during the spring and fall transition periods, Proc. 14th Conf. Great Lakes Res., Intl. Assoc. Great Lakes Res. Michigan, USA, 535–544~pp., 1971.; Britter, R. E. and Linden, P. F.: The motion of ...

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Transport of Aabw Through the Kane Gap, Tropical NE Atlantic : Vol...

By: R. Yu. Tarakanov; H. Van Haren; E. G. Morozov

Description: Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nakhimovsky pr. 36, Moscow, 117997 Russia. We study low-frequency flow of Antarctic Bottom Water through the Kane Gap (9° N) in the Atlantic. The measurements in the Kane Gap include five visits with CTD sections in 2009–2012 and a year-long record of currents using three AquaDopp current-meters. We found an alternating regime of flow, which changes direction several times during a ye...

Hobart, M. A., Bunce, E. T., and Sclater, J. G.: Bottom water flow through the Kane Gap, Sierra Leone Rise, Atlantic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 80, 5083–5088, 1975.; Mantyla, A. W. and Reid, J. L.: Abyssal characteristics of the World Ocean waters, Deep-Sea Res., 30, 805–833 1983.; McCartney, M. S., Bennet, S. L., and Woodgate-Jones, M. E.: Eastward flow through the Mid-Atlantic ridge at 11{\degree} N and its influence on the abyss of the Eastern basin, J. Phys. Oceanogr.,...

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Extraction of Spatial-temporal Rules from Mesoscale Eddies in the ...

By: H. Mao; F. Su; X. Fan; Z. He; Y. Du; C. Zhou; D. Wang

Description: State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China. In this paper, a rough set theory is introduced to represent spatial-temporal relationships and extract the corresponding rules from typical mesoscale-eddy states in the South China Sea (SCS). Three decision attributes are adopted in this study, which make the approach ...

Bai, H., Ge, Y., Wang, J., and Liao, Y.: Using rough set theory to identify villages affected by birth defects: the example of Heshun, Shanxi, China, Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Sci., 24, 559–576, 2010.; Cheng, X., Qi, Y., and Wang, W.: Seasonal and Interannual Variabilities of Mesoscale Eddies in South China Sea, J. Trop. Oceanogr., 24, 51–59, 2005.; Fayyad, U. M. and Irani, K. B.: On the handling of continuous-valued attributes in decision tree generation, Mach. Learn., 8, 87–...

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Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies, Seasonal Cycle and Trend Regime...

By: S. E. Lluch-cota; D. B. Lluch-cota; A. Trasviña-castro; A. Ramos-rodríguez

Description: Programa de Ecología Pesquera, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste, S.C. La Paz, Mexico. We used the extended reconstruction of sea surface temperature (ERSST) to analyze the variation of surface temperature and the seasonal cycle along the coast of the eastern Pacific (60° N–60° S, 61 pixels alongshore) from 1950 to 2010 (732 months). First we analyzed the monthly anomalies and looked for a relationship of such anomalies with total solar ...

Ashok, K. and Yamagata, T.: The El Niño with a difference, Nature, 461, 481–484, 2009.; Bloomfield, P.: Fourier Analysis of Time Series: An Introduction, Wiley Series in Probability and Mathematical Statistics, John Wiley & Sons, 1st edn., 1976.; Dean, W. E.: Sun and climate, USGS Fact Sheet FS-095-00, 2000.; Braun, H., Christl, M., Rahmstorf, S., Ganopolski, A., Mangini, A., Kubatzki, C., Roth, K., and Kromer, B.: Possible solar origin of the 1,470-year glacial climate ...

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An Operational Model for the West Iberian Coast: Products and Serv...

By: G. Riflet; L. Fernandes; P. Chambel; M. Juliano; R. Neves; F. Campuzano; R. Fernandes; M. Mateus; H. De Pablo

Description: MARETEC, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisboa, Portugal. The paper presents the structure and application of a regional scale operational modelling tool for the West Iberian coast. The forecasting suite includes nested hydrodynamic models forced with up-to-date meteorological forecast data and large scale model results as lateral boundary conditions. The present status of the system and its rece...

Arakawa, A.: Computational design for long-term numerical integration of the equations of fluid motion: two-dimensional incompressible flow. Part I, J. Comput. Phys., 1, 119–143, 1966.; Balseiro, C. F., Carracedo, P., Gómez, B., Leitão, P. C., Montero, P., Naranjo, L., Penabad, E., and Pérez-Muñuzuri, V.: Tracking the Prestige oil spill: an operational experience in simulation at MeteoGalicia, Weather, 58, 452–458, 2003.; Bell, M. J., Lefèbvre, M., Le Traon, P.-Y., Smith...

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Observing Using Sound and Light – a Short Review of Underwater Aco...

By: P. Jonsson; J. Heltne; B. Dushaw; J. Nystuen; I. Sillitoe

Description: Lund University, Engineering Geology, Lund, Sweden. This paper is a review which briefly describes a selection of acoustic observation techniques and certain aspects of underwater video technology suitable for observations in an underwater environment. The review is divided into two sections, one for each subject, where each section concludes with a discussion of the current challenges within the respective fields.

The acoustic section of th...

Abileah, R., Martin, D., Lewis, S. D., and Gisiner, B.: Long-range acoustic detection and tracking of the humpback whale Hawaii-Alaska migration, OCEANS '96, MTS/IEEE, Prospects for the 21st Century, Conference Proceedings, 373–377, 1996.; Acar, G. and Adams, A. E.: ACMENet: an underwater acoustic sensor network protocol for real-time environmental monitoring in coastal areas, Radar, Sonar and Navigation, IEE Proceedings, 365–380, 2006.; Akyildiz, I. F., Pompili, D., and...

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The Wind-driven Overturning Circulation of the World Ocean : Volum...

By: K. Döös

Description: Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. The wind driven aspects of the meridional overturning circulation of the world ocean and the Conveyor Belt is studied making use of a simple analytical model. The model consists of three reduced gravity layers with an inviscid Sverdrupian interior and a western boundary layer. The net north-south exchange is made possible by setting appropriate western boundary conditions, so that...

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The Multifractal Structure of Satellite Sea Surface Temperature Ma...

By: G. Larnicol; V. Nieves; E. Garcia-ladona; J. Font; M.-h. Rio; A. Turiel

Description: Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, Barcelona, Spain. Nowadays Earth observation satellites provide information about many relevant variables of the ocean-climate system, such as temperature, moisture, aerosols, etc. However, to retrieve the velocity field, which is the most relevant dynamical variable, is still a technological challenge, specially in the case of oceans. New processing techniques, emerged from the theory of turbulent flows, have come t...

Arneodo, A., Argoul, F., Bacry, E., Elezgaray, J., and Muzy, J F.: Ondelettes, multifractales et turbulence, Diderot Editeur, Paris, France, 169 pp., 1995.; Bowen, M., Emery, W., Wilkin, J., Tildesley, P., Barton, I., and Knewtson, R.: Extracting multiyear surface currents from sequential thermal imagery using the Maximum Cross-correlation Technique, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 19, 1665–1676, 2002.; Chapron, B., Collard, F., and Ardhuin, F.: Direct measurement of ocean s...

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A 20-yr Reanalysis Experiment in the Baltic Sea Using Three Dimens...

By: W. Fu; M. Dobrynin; J. She

Description: Center for Ocean and Ice (COI), Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), Copenhagen, 2100, Denmark. A 20-year retrospective reanalysis of the ocean state in the Baltic Sea is constructed using three dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation combining an operational numerical model with available historical temperature (T) and salinity (S) profiles. To determine the accuracy of the reanalysis, the authors present a series of comparison...

Byrd, R. H., Lu, P., Nocedal, J., and Zhu, C.: A limited memory algorithm for bound constrained optimization, SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 16, 1190–1208, 1995.; Bengtsson, L., Hagermann, S., and Hodges, K. I.: Can climate trends be calculated from reanalysis data? J. Geophys. Res., 109, D11111, doi:10.1029/2004JD004536, 2004.; Carton, J. A., Giese, B. S., and Grodsky, S. A.: Sea level rise and the warming of the oceans in the Si...

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Variability of Scaling Time Series in the Sea Ice Drift Dynamics i...

By: V. N. Smirnov; I. B. Sheikin; A. Chmel

Description: Ioffe Physico-Technical Inst., Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg, Russia. A motion of an individual ice field in the Arctic Ocean was monitored at the Russian research station North Pole 35 established on the ice pack in 2008. The ice field velocity (V) was found to be correlated with wind velocity (v) in main features, such as the positions of maxima and minima of V and v. However, the fine structure of the <...

Bak, P., Christensen, K., Danon, L., and Scalon, T.: Unified scaling law for Earthquakes, Phys. Rev. Lett., 88, 178501(1–4), 2002.; Chmel, A., Smirnov, V. N., and Astakhov, A. P.: The Arctic sea ice cover: fractal space-time domain, Physica A, 357, 556–564, 2005.; Abaimov, S. G., Turcotte, D. L., Sherbakov, R., and Rundle, J. B.: Recurrence and interoccurence behavior of self-organized complex phenomena, Nonlinear Proc. Geoph., 14, 455–464, 2007.; Chmel, A., Smirnov, V. ...

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Mesoscale Variability in the Arabian Sea from Hycom Model Results ...

By: R. Baraille; R. Duarte; X. Carton; C. Vic; D. Ciani; S. Corréard; P. L'Hégaret

Description: LPO, UBO/UEB and IFREMER, Brest, France. The Arabian Sea and Sea of Oman circulation and water masses, subject to the monsoon forcing, reveal a strong seasonal variability and intense mesoscale features. We describe and analyse this variability and these features, using both meteorological data (from ECMWF reanalyses), in-situ observations (from the ARGO float program and the GDEM climatology), satellite altimetry (from AVISO) and a regio...

Bower, A. S., Hunt, H. D., and Price, J. F.: Character and dynamics of the red Sea and the Persian Gulf outflows, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 105, 6387–6414, 2000.; Carnes, M. R.: Description and Evaluation of GDEM-V 3.0, Naval Research Laboratory, Oceanography Division, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529-5004, 2009.; Carton, X., L'Hegaret, P., and Baraille, R.: Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats, Ocean Sci., 8, 227–248,

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