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Long Term Trends in the Sea Surface Temperature of the Black Sea :...

By: D. L. Aleynik; L. D. Mee; G. I. Shapiro

Description: School of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, PL4 8AA, UK. There is growing understanding that recent deterioration of the Black Sea ecosystem was partly due to changes in the marine physical environment. This study uses high resolution 0.25° climatology to analyze sea surface temperature variability over the 20th century in two contrasting regions of the sea. Results show that the deep Black Sea was cooling during the first...

Belokopytov, V.: On hydrometeorological conditions of Cold Intermediate Water renewal in northern part of the Black Sea, in: Ecosystem Modelling as a Management Tool for the Black SeaNATO ASI Ser. 2, edited by: Ivanov, L. and Oguz, T., Editors, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 47–52, 1998.; Besiktepe, S., Sur, H. I., Özsoy, E., Latif, M. A., Oguz, T., and Ünlüata, Ü.: The Circulation and Hydrography of the Marmara Sea, Prog. Oceanogr., 34, 285–334, 1994.; Conversi,...

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Comparing Historical and Modern Methods of Sea Surface Temperature...

By: J. B. R. Matthews

Description: School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada. Sea surface temperature (SST) has been obtained from a variety of different platforms, instruments and depths over the past 150 yr. Modern-day platforms include ships, moored and drifting buoys and satellites. Shipboard methods include temperature measurement of seawater sampled by bucket and flowing through engine cooling water intakes. Here I review SST measurement met...

Collins, C. A., Giovando, L. F., and Abbott-Smith, K. B.: Comparison of Canadian and Japanese Merchant-Ship Observations of Sea-Surface Temperature in the Vicinity of Present Ocean Weather Station P, 1927–1933, J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can., 32, 253–258, doi:10.1139/f75-023, 1975.; Fedorov, K. N. and Ginsburg, A. I.: The Near-surface Layer of the Ocean, VSP, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1992.; Ashford, O. M.: A new bucket for measureme...

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A Parameter Model of Gas Exchange for the Seasonal Sea Ice Zone : ...

By: D. Perovich; C. J. Zappa; W. R. McGillis; B. Loose; P. Schlosser

Description: Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, 215 South Ferry Rd., Narragansett, RI, 02882, USA. Carbon budgets for the polar oceans require better constraint on air–sea gas exchange in the sea ice zone (SIZ). Here, we utilize advances in the theory of turbulence, mixing and air–sea flux in the ice–ocean boundary layer (IOBL) to formulate a simple model for gas exchange when the surface ocean is partially covered by sea ice. The gas transf...

Andreas, E. L. and Murphy, B.: Bulk transfer coefficients for heat and momentum over leads and polynyas, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 16, 1875–1883, 1986.; Andreas, E. L., Horst, T. W., Grachev, A. A., Persson, O. G., Fairall, C. W., Gueste, P. S., and Jordan, R. E.: Parametrizing turbulent exchange over summer sea ice and the marginal ice zone, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 136, 927–943, 2010.; Blackadar, A. K. and Tennekes, H.: Asymptotic similary in a neutral barotropic planetary...

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Interannual Correlations Between Sea Surface Temperature and Conce...

By: G. Gutiérrez-de-velasco; S. E. Lluch-cota; D. B. Lluch-cota; H. Herrera-cervantes

Description: Unidad La Paz, Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), La Paz, Baja California Sur 23050, México. Interannual correlation between satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) and surface chlorophyll a (Chl a) are examined in the coastal upwelling zone off Punta Eugenia on the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula, area identified as intense biological productivity and oceanograph...

Behrenfeld,~M J., O'Malley,~R T., Siegel,~D A., McClain,~C R., Sarmiento,~J L., Feldman,~G C., Milligan,~A J., Falkowski,~P G., Letelier,~R M., and Boss,~E S.: Climatic-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity, Nature, 444, 752–755, 2006.; Boehm,~A B., Lluch-Cota,~D B., Davis,~K A., Winnan,~C D., and Monismith,~S G.: Covariation of coastal water temperature and microbial pollution at interannual to tidal periods, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L06309, \doi10.1029/2003G...

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Comparison of Global Ocean Colour Data Records : Volume 6, Issue 1...

By: F. Mélin; N. Hoepffner; S. Djavidnia

Description: European Commission – Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, TP272, via Fermi, 2749, 21027, Ispra, Italy. The extending record of ocean colour derived information, an important asset for the study of marine ecosystems and biogeochemistry, presently relies on individual satellite missions launched by several space agencies with differences in sensor design, calibration strategies and algorithms. In this study we present an ex...

Antoine, D. and Morel, A.: A multiple scattering algorithm for atmospheric correction of remotely sensed ocean colour (MERIS instrument): Principle and implementation for atmospheres carrying various aerosols including absorbing ones, Int. J. Remote Sens., 20, 1875–1916, 1999.; Bailey, S. W. and Werdell, P. J.: A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products, Remote Sens. Environ., 102, 12–23, 2006.; Behrenfeld, M. J., Randerson...

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Assimilation of Sla Along Track Observations in the Mediterranean ...

By: C. Dufau; S. Dobricic; M.-h. Rio; N. Pinardi; P. Oddo; I. Pujol

Description: Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC), Bologna, Italy. A large number of SLA observations at a high along track horizontal resolution are an important ingredient of the data assimilation in the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS). Recently new higher frequency SLA products have become available, and the atmospheric pressure forcing has been implemented in the numerical model used in the MFS data assimilation system. In a set of ...

Barnier, B., Madec, G., Penduff, T., Molines, J.-M., Treguier, A.-M., le Sommer, J., Beckmann, A., Biastoch, A., Böning, C., Dengg, J., Derval, C., Durand, E., Gulev, S., Remy, E., Talandier, C., Theetten, S., Maltrud, M., McClean, J., and de Cuevas, B.: Impact of partial steps and momentum advection schemes in a global circulation model at eddy permitting resolution, Ocean Dynam., 56, 543–567, doi:10.1007/s10236-006-00...

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Wind Forcing of Salinity Anomalies in the Denmark Strait Overflow ...

By: K. J. Heywood; M. R. Wadley; S. R. Dye; S. Hall

Description: School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK. The overflow of dense water from the Nordic Seas to the North Atlantic through Denmark Strait is an important part of the global thermohaline circulation. The salinity of the overflow plume has been measured by an array of current meters across the continental slope off the coast of Angmagssalik, southeast Greenland since September 1998. During 2004 the salinity of the overflow pl...

Aagaard, K. and Carmack, E.: The Role of Sea Ice and Other Fresh Water in Arctic Circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 14485–14498, 1989.; Curry, R., Dickson, B., and Yashayaev, I.: A change in the freshwater balance of the Atlantic Ocean over the past four decades, Nature, 426, 826–829, 2003.; Coward, A. and de Cuevas, B.: The OCCAM 66 Level Model: physics, initial conditions and external forcing, SOC Internal Report No. 99, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK, 2...

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Validation of the Nemo-ersem Operational Ecosystem Model for the N...

By: M. Butenschön; R. Barciela; K. P. Edwards

Description: Met Office, Exeter, UK. This paper details updates to the Met Office's operational coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem model from the Medium-Resolution Continental Shelf – POLCOMS-ERSEM (MRCS-PE) system (Siddorn et al., 2007) to the 7 km Atlantic Margin Model NEMO-ERSEM (AMM7-NE) system. We also provide a validation of the ecosystem component of the new operational system. Comparisons have been made between the model variables and availabl...

Baretta, J. W., Admiraal, C. F., Malschaert, J. F. P., and Ruardij, P.: The construction of the pelagic submodel, in: Tidal Flat Estuaries: Simulation and Analysis of the Ems Estuary, edited by: Baretta, J. W. and Ruardij, P., Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 77–104, 1988.; Baretta, J. W., Ebenhoh, W., and Ruardij, P.: The European-Regional-Seas-Ecosystem-Model, a complex marine ecosystem model, Neth. J. Sea. Res., 33, 233–246, 1995.; Blackford, J. C., Allen, J. I., and Gilb...

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Comparison Between Three Implementations of Automatic Identificati...

By: P. Y. Le Traon; C. De Boyer Montégut; J. M. A. C. Souza

Description: Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer, Brest, France. Three methods for automatic detection of mesoscale coherent structures are applied to Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) fields in the South Atlantic. The first method is based on the wavelet packet decomposition of the SLA data, the second on the estimation of the Okubo-Weiss parameter and the third on a geometric criterion using the winding-angle approach. The results provide a comprehe...

Beismann, J. O., Kase, R. H., and Lutjeharms, J. R. E.: On the influence of submarine ridges on propagation and stability of Agulhas rings, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 7897–7906, 1999.; Boebel, O., Lutjeharms, J., Schmid, C., Zenk, W., Rossby, T., and barron, C.: The Cape Cauldron: A regime of turbulent inter-ocean exchange, Deep-Sea Res. II, 50, 57–86, 2003.; Byrne, D. A., Gordon, A. L., and Haxby, W. F.: Agulhas eddies: A synoptic view using Geosat ERM data, J. Phys. Oceano...

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Transformation of an Agulhas Eddy Near the Continental Slope : Vol...

By: Y. Zhang; G. R. Flierl; S. Baker-yeboah; G. G. Sutyrin

Description: Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. The transformation of Agulhas eddies near the continental slope of South Africa and their subsequent self-propagation are analyzed in both observational data and numerical simulations. Self-propagation results from a net dipole moment of a generalized heton structure consisting of a surface-intensified anticyclonic eddy and deep cycl...

An, B. W. and McDonald, N. R.: Coastal currents and eddies and their interaction with topography, Dynam. Atmos. Oceans, 40, 237–253, 2005.; Arhan, M., Mercier, H., and Lutjeharms, J. R. E.: The disparate evolution of three Agulhas rings in the South Atlantic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 20 987–21 005, 1999.; Baker-Yeboah, S.: Sea Surface Height Variability and the Structure of Eddies in the South Atlantic Cape Basin, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Rhode Island, Narra...

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Seismic Imaging of a Thermohaline Staircase in the Western Tropica...

By: R. W. Schmitt; W. S. Holbrook; I. Fer; P. Páramo; P. Nandi

Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Allégaten 70, 5007, Bergen, Norway. Multichannel seismic data acquired in the Lesser Antilles in the western tropical North Atlantic indicate that the seismic reflection method has imaged an oceanic thermohaline staircase. Synthetic acoustic modeling using measured density and sound speed profiles corroborates inferences from the seismic data. In a small portion of the seismic image, laterally coherent, uniform...

Garrett, C. J. and Munk, W. H.: Space-time scales of internal waves, Geophys. Fluid Dyn., 3, 225–264, 1972.; Bangs, N.: Ewing Cruise EW9803, 15 March–6 April 1998, Structure tectonics and sediment flow through the Lesser Antilles Subduction Zone, Tech. Rep., Institute og Geophysics, University of Texas, 1998.; Biescas, B., Sallar{è}s, V., Pelegri, J. L., Machin, F., Carbonell, R., Buffett, G., Da{ñ}obeitia, J. J., and Calahorrano, A.: Imaging Meddy finestructure using mu...

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Impact of Sla Assimilation in the Sicily Channel Regional Model: M...

By: S. Dobricic; C. Dufau; A. Ribotti; L. Fazioli; A. Olita; R. Sorgente; A. Cucco

Description: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche – Istituto per l'Ambiente Marino Costiero, Loc. Sa Mardini, 09170 Oristano, Italy. The impact of the assimilation of MyOcean Sea Level Anomalies along track data on the analyses of the Sicily Channel Regional Model was studied. The numerical model has a resolution of 1/32° degrees and is capable to reproduce mesoscale and sub-mesoscale features. The impact of the SLA assimilation is studied by comparing a simulation (SI...

Auclair, F., Marsaleix, P., and Estournel, C.: Sigma Coordinate Pressure Gradient Errors: Evaluation and Reduction by an Inverse Method, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 17, 1348–1367, 2000.; Castellari, S., Pinardi, N., and Leaman, K.: A model study of air-sea interaction in the Mediterranean Sea, J. Marine Syst., 18, 89–114, 1998.; Blumberg, A. and Mellor, G.: A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean circulation model, Coastal Estuarine Science, edited by: Heaps, ...

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Three-dimensional Modelling of Wave-induced Current from the Surf ...

By: Y. Leredde; C. Estournel; P. Marsaleix; H. Michaud; F. Bourrin; C. Mayet; F. Lyard; F. Ardhuin

Description: Géosciences Montpellier, UMR5243, CNRS – Université Montpellier 2 Sciences et Techniques, place E Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 5, France. We develop and implement a new method to take into account the impact of waves into the 3-D circulation model SYMPHONIE (Marsaleix et al., 2008, 2009a), following the simplified equations of Bennis et al. (2011) which use glm2z-RANS theory (Ardhuin et al., 2008b). These adiabatic equations are completed by addit...

Agrawal, Y. C., Terray, E. A., Donelan, M. A., Hwang, M. A., Williams III, A. J., Drennan, W. M., Kahma, K. K., and Kitaigorodskii, K. K.: Enhanced dissipation of kinetic energy beneath surface waves, Nature, 359, 219–233, 1992.; Aleman, N., Robin, N., Certain, R., Vanroye, C., Barusseau, J., and Bouchette, F.: Typology of nearshore bars in the Gulf of Lions (FRANCE) using LIDAR technology, J. Coastal Res., 64, 721–725, 2011.; Andrews, D. and McIntyre, M.: An exact theor...

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Internal Tides and Energy Fluxes Over Great Meteor Seamount : Volu...

By: H. Van Haren; T. Gerkema

Description: Royal NIOZ, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands. Internal-tide energy fluxes are determined halfway over the southern slope of Great Meteor Seamount (Canary Basin), using data from combined CTD/LADCP yoyoing, covering the whole water column. The strongest signal is semi-diurnal and is concentrated in the upper few hundred meters of the water column. An indeterminacy in energy flux profiles is discussed; it is argued that a commonly app...

Hibiya, T., Nagasawa, M., and Niwa, Y.: Nonlinear energy transfer within the oceanic internal wave spectrum at mid and high latitudes, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C11), 3207, doi:10.1029/2001JC001210, 2002.; Dietrich, G.: Ozeanographie – physische Geographie des Weltmeeres, Georg Westermann Verlag, Braunschweig, 1970.; Egbert, G D. and Ray, R D.: Semi-diurnal and diurnal tidal dissipation from TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1907, doi:10.1029/2003GL017676, 2...

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Secchi Depth in the Oslofjord–skagerrak Area: Theory, Experiments ...

By: K. Sørensen; J. Høkedal; E. Aas

Description: Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, Gaustadalleen 21, 0349 Oslo, Norway. The Secchi depth and its relationships to other properties of the sea water in the Oslofjord–Skagerrak area have been investigated. White and black disks of different sizes have been applied, and the Secchi depth has been observed with the naked eye, through colour filters and with a water telescope. Spectral luminances and illuminances have been calculated from recordin...

Aarup, T., Holt, N., and Højerslev, N. K.: Optical measurements in the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition zone, III. Statistical analysis of bio-optical data from the Eastern North Sea, the Skagerrak and the Kattegat, Cont. Shelf Res., 16, 1355–1377, 1996b.; Aas, E.: Estimates of radiance reflected towards the zenith at the surface of the sea, Ocean Sci., 6, 861–876, doi:10.5194/os-6-861-2010, 2010.; Aas, E. and Højerslev,...

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The Low-resolution Ccsm2 Revisited: New Adjustments and a Present-...

By: M. Prange

Description: MARUM – Center for Marine Environmental Sciences and Department of Geosciences, University of Bremen, Klagenfurter Str., 28334 Bremen, Germany. The low-resolution (T31) version of the Community Climate System Model CCSM2.0.1 is revisited and adjusted by deepening the Greenland-Scotland ridge, changing oceanic mixing parameters, and applying a regional freshwater flux adjustment at high northern latitudes. The main purpose of these adjustments is to mainta...

AchutaRao, K. and Sperber, K. R.: Simulation of the El Niño Southern Oscillation: Results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Clim. Dynam., 19, 191–209, 2002.; AchutaRao, K. and Sperber, K. R.: ENSO simulation in coupled ocean-atmosphere models: are the current models better?, Clim. Dynam., 27, 1–15, 2006.; Alley, R. B. and Agustsdottir, A. M.: The 8k event: Cause and consequences of major Holocene abrupt climate change, Quat. Sci. Rev., 24, 1123–1149, 2005.;...

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A Review of the Role of Submarine Canyons in Deep-ocean Exchange w...

By: X. Durrieu De Madron; S. E. Allen

Description: Department of Earth and Ocean Science, University of British Columbia, 6339 Stores Rd, Vancouver V6T 1Z4, Canada. Cross shelf-break exchange is limited by the tendency of geostrophic flow to follow bathymetric contours, not cross them. However, small scale topography, such as canyons, can reduce the local lengthscale of the flow and increase the local Rossby number. These higher Rossby numbers mean the flow is no longer purely geostrophic and significant...

Aagaard, K. and Roach, A. T.: Arctic ocean-shelf exchange: Measurements in Barrow Canyon, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 18163–18175, 1990.; Allen, S. E.: Topographically generated, subinertial flows within a finite length canyon, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26, 1608–1632, 1996.; Allen, S. E.: On subinertial flow in submarine canyons: Effect of Geometry, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 1285–1297, 2000.; Allen, S. E.: Restrictions on deep flow across the shelf-break, Surv. Geophys., 25, 221–247, 2...

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Decadal Variability of Heat Content in the South China Sea Inferre...

By: Qinyan Liu; Jian Lan; Lili Zeng; Dongxiao Wang; Wei Song; Dandan Sui

Description: Physical Oceanography Laboratory, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China. Using an observation data set of temperature and the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA), the decadal variability of upper ocean heat content (0–400 m; hereafter, OHC) in the South China Sea (SCS) was investigated for the period from 1958 to 2007. Decadal variability was identified as the dominant mode of upper OHC besides the seasonal cycle. According to decreasing or increa...

Carton, J. A. and Giese B. S.: A Reanalysis of Ocean Climate Using Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA), Mon. Weather Rev., 136, 2999–3017, 2008.; Carton, J. A., Chepurin, G., Cao, X., and Giese, B.: A simple ocean data assimilation analysis of the global upper ocean 1950–95, Part I: Methodology, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 294–309, 2000a.; Carton, J. A., Chepurin, G., Cao, X., and Giese, B.: A simple ocean data assimilation analysis of the global upper ocean 1950-95. Part ...

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Dynamically Constrained Ensemble Perturbations – Application to Ti...

By: R. H. Weisberg; A. Alvera-azcárate; F. Lenartz; J.-m. Beckers; A. Barth; M. Rixen; L. Vandenbulcke

Description: GeoHydrodynamics and Environment Research (GHER), MARE, Allée du 6-Août 17, University of Liège Sart-Tilman B5 4000 Liège, Belgium. A method is presented to create an ensemble of perturbations that satisfies linear dynamical constraints. A cost function is formulated defining the probability of each perturbation. It is shown that the perturbations created with this approach take the land-sea mask into account in a similar way as variational analysis tech...

Alvera-Azcárate, A., Barth, A., Beckers, J., and Weisberg, R H.: Multivariate reconstruction of missing data in sea surface temperature, chlorophyll and wind satellite field, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C03008, \doi10.1029/2006JC003660, 2007.; Arakawa, A. and Lamb, V.: A potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations, Mon. Weather Rev., 109, 18–36, 1981.; Barth, A., Alvera-Azcárate, A., Beckers, J.-M., Rixen, M., and Vandenbulcke, L.: Multigr...

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First Laboratory Study of Air–sea Gas Exchange at Hurricane Wind S...

By: B. Jähne; K. E. Krall

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. In a pilot study conducted in October and November 2011, air–sea gas transfer velocities of the two sparingly soluble trace gases hexafluorobenzene and 1,4-difluorobenzene were measured in the unique high-speed wind-wave tank at Kyoto University, Japan. This air–sea interaction facility is capable of producing hurricane strength wind speeds ...

McNeil, C. and D'Asaro, E.: Parameterization of air sea gas fluxes at extreme wind speeds, J. Marine Syst., 66, 110–121, 2007.; Memery, L. and Merlivat, L.: Modelling of gas flux through bubbles at the air-water interface, Tellus B, 37, 272–285, 1985.; Ambrose, D., Ewing, M. B., Ghiassee, N. B., and Sanchez Ochoa, J. C.: The ebulliometric method of vapour pressure measurement: vapour pressures of benzene, hexafluorobenzene, and naphthalene, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 22, 589–6...

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