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Surface Circulation in the Eastern Mediterranean Using Drifters (2...

By: C. Millot; I. Taupier-letage; P.-m. Poulain; C. Sammari; S. Ben Ismail; R. Gerin

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), Borgo Grotta Gigante, 42/c, 34010 Sgonico, Trieste, Italy. Within the framework of the EGITTO/EGYPT programs, the spatial structure and the temporal variability of the surface circulation in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea was studied with satellite-tracked drifters. A total of 97 drifters drogued to 15-m nominal depth were released between September 2005 and March 2007, reg...

Emery, W. J. and Thomson, R. E.: Data Analysis Methods in Physical Oceanography, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 638 pp., 2004.; Alhammoud, B., Béranger, K., Mortier, L., Crépon, M., and Dekeyser, I.: Surface circulation of the Levantine Basin: comparison of model results with observations, Prog. Oceanogr., 66(2–4), 299–320, 2005.; Beranger, K., Taupier-Letage, I., Alhammoud, B., Lellouche, J. M., Emelianov, M., Mortier, L., and Millot, C.: Analysis of two mesoscale eddies in the s...

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Detecting Changes in Labrador Sea Water Through a Water Mass Analy...

By: M. Tomczak; A. Henry-edwards

Description: School of Chemistry Physics and Earth Sciences, Flinders University of South Australia, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001, Australia. A new water mass analysis technique is used to analyse the BATS oceanographic data set in the Sargasso Sea of 1988-1998 for changes in Labrador Sea Water (LSW) properties. The technique is based on a sequential quadratic programming method and requires careful definition of constraints to produce reliable results. Variations ...

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Flow Dynamics Around Downwelling Submarine Canyons : Volume 11, Is...

By: S. E. Allen; J. M. Spurgin

Description: Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (Northwest Mediterranean) was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby number and Burger nu...

Adcroft, A., Hill, C., Campin, J.-M., Marshall, J., and Heimbach, P.: Overview of the formulation and numerics of the MIT GCM, in: Proceedings of the ECMWF seminar series on Numerical Methods, Recent developments in numerical methods for atmosphere and ocean modelling, 139–149, 2004.; Allen, S. E.: Topographically generated, subinertial flows within a finite length canyon, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26, 1608–1632, 1996.; Allen, S. E., Vindeirinho, C., Thomson, R. E., Foreman, M...

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Shifting Momentum Balance and Frictional Adjustment Observed Over ...

By: J. L. Pelegrí; A. Aretxabaleta; M. Espino; M. Grifoll

Description: Maritime Engineering Laboratory, Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain. We investigate the rapidly changing equilibrium between the momentum sources and sinks during the passage of a two-peak storm over the Catalan inner-shelf (NW Mediterranean Sea). Velocity measurements at 24 m water depth are taken as representative of the inner shelf, and the cross-shelf variability is explored with additional measurements at 50 m water ...

Booij, N., Ris, R. C., and Holthuijsen, L. H.: A third-generation wave model for coastal regions: 1. Model description and validation, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 7649, doi:10.1029/98JC02622, 1999.; Csanady, G. T.: Circulation in the coastal ocean, Adv. Geophys., 23, 101–183, 1981.; Dzwonkowski, B., Park, K., Lee, J., Webb, B. M., and Valle-Levinson, A.: Spatial variability of flow over a river-influenced inner shelf in coastal ...

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Investigation of Saline Water Intrusions Into the Curonian Lagoon ...

By: S. Gulbinskas; C. Ferrarin; G. Umgiesser; D. Bellafiore; P. Zemlys

Description: Coastal Research and Planning Institute, Klaipėda University, Manto 84, 92294 Klaip\.{e}da, Lithuania. This work is focused on the application of a modelling system to simulate 3-D interaction between the Curonian Lagoon and the Baltic Sea coastal waters and to reflect spatiotemporal dynamics of marine waters in the Curonian Lagoon. The model system is based on the finite element programme package SHYFEM which can be used to resolve the hydrodynamic equa...

Bellafiore, D. and Umgiesser, G.: Hydrodynamic coastal processes in the North Adriatic investigated with a 3-D finite element model, Ocean Dyn., 60, 255–276, 2010.; Bellafiore, D., Guarnieri, A., Grilli, F., Penna, P., Bortoluzzi, G., Giglio, F., and Pinardi N.: Study of the hydrodynamical processes in the Boka Kotorska Bay with a finite element model, Dyn. Atmos. Oc., 52, 298–321, 2011.; Blumberg, A. and Mellor, G. L.: A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean ...

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Impact of Data Assimilation of Physical Variables on the Spring Bl...

By: C. Hansen; L. Bertino; A. Samuelsen

Description: Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen, Norway. A reanalysis of the North Atlantic spring bloom in 2007 was produced using the real-time analysis from the TOPAZ North Atlantic and Arctic forecasting system. The TOPAZ system uses a hybrid coordinate general circulation ocean model and assimilates physical observations: sea surface anomalies, sea surface temperatures, and sea-ice concentrations using the Ensemble Kalman Filter. This ocean ...

Berline, L., Brankart, J.-M., Brasseur, P., Ourmieres, Y., and Verron, J.: Improving the physics of a coupled physical-biogeochemical model of the North Atlantic through data assimilation: Impact on the ecosystem, J. Mar. Syst., 64, 153–172, 2007.; Bleck, R.: An oceanic general circulation model framed in hybrid isopycnic-Cartesian coordinates, Ocean Modell., 4, 55–88, 2002.; % vor jede Referenz Aksnes, D. L. and Egge, J. K.: A theoretical model for nutrient uptake in ph...

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Thermodynamic Properties of Standard Seawater : Volume 6, Issue 1 ...

By: R. Feistel; A. Heintz; F. Millero; E. Hassel; J. Safarov

Description: Lehrstuhl für Technische Thermodynamik, Universität Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 2, 18059 Rostock, Germany. (p, ρ, T) data of standard seawater with practical salinity S≈35 (corresponding to an absolute salinity SA≈35.16504 g/kg) measured at T=(273.14 to 468.06) K and pressures up to p=140 MPa are reported with an estimated experimental relative combined standard uncertainty of 0.006% in density. The ...

Archer, D. G.: Thermodynamic Properties of the NaCl+H2O System. II. Thermodynamic Properites of NaCl (aq), NaCl·2H2O(cr) and Phase Equilibria, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 21, 793–829, 1992.; Bradshaw, A. and Schleicher, K. E.: Direct measurements of thermal expansion of seawater under pressure, Deep Sea Res., 17, 691–706, 1970.; Bradshaw, A. and Schleicher, K. E.: Compressibility of distilled water and seawater, Deep Sea Res., 23, 583–593, 1976.; Cald...

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Operative Forecast of Hydrophysical Fields in the Georgian Black S...

By: D. I. Demetrashvili; A. A. Kordzadze

Description: M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics, Iv. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, 1, M. Alexidze Str., 0193 Tbilisi, Georgia. One of the part of the Black Sea Nowcasting/Forecasting System is the regional forecasting system for the Easternmost part of the Black Sea (including the Georgian water area), which have been developed within the context of the EU International projects ARENA and ECOOP. A core of the regional system is a high-resolution baroclinic re...

Zilitinkevich, S. S. and Monin, A. S.: Turbulence in Dynamic Models of the Atmosphere (in Russian), Nauka, Leningrad, 41 pp., 1971.; Berlyand, G. G.: Method of climatological calculation of the net radiation (in Russian), Meteorologia i gidrologia, Moscow, 6, 9–12, 1960.; Besiktepe, S. T.: Development of the regional forecasting system for the Black Sea, Proceeding of the Second International Conference on Oceanography of Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea: Similarities...

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A Global Comparison of Argo and Satellite Altimetry Observations :...

By: G. Larnicol; S. Guinehut; P.-y. Le Traon; A. -l. Dhomps

Description: CLS, Space Oceanography Division, Ramonville Saint-Agne, France. Differences, similarities and complementarities between Sea Level Anomalies (SLA) deduced from altimeter measurements and dynamic height anomalies (DHA) calculated from Argo in situ temperature (T) and salinity (S) profiles are globally analyzed. SLA and DHA agree remarkably well and, compared to previous studies, Argo dataset allows an improvement in the coherence between SL...

Antonov, J. I., Boyer, T. P., Mishonov, A. V., and Garcia, H. E.: Salinity. Vol. 2, World Ocean Atlas 2005, NOAA Atlas NESDIS, 65, 182 pp., 2006.; AVISO: Ssalto/Duacs user Handbook: (M)SLA and (M)ADT near-real time and delayed time products, SALP-MU-P-EA-21065-CLS, Edition 2.2, 2010.; Bell, M. J., Lefebvre, M., Le Traon, P. Y., Smith, N., and Wilmer-Becker, K.: The Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment, Oceanography, 22(3), 14–21, 2009.; Cazenave, A., Dominh, K., Gui...

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On the Chemical Dynamics of Extracellular Polysaccharides in the H...

By: C. Leck; P. A. Matrai; C. Rauschenberg; Q. Gao

Description: Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. The surface microlayer (SML) represents a unique system of which the physicochemical characteristics may differ from those of the underlying subsurface seawater (SSW). Within the Arctic pack ice area, the SML has been characterized as enriched in small colloids of biological origin, resulting from extracellular polymeric secretions (EPS). During the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study...

Aluwihare, L. I., Repeta, D. J., and Chen, R. F.: A major biopolymeric component to dissolved organic carbon in surface sea water, Nature, 387, 166–169, 1997.; Amon, R. M. W. and Benner, R.: Combined neutral sugars as indicators of the diagenetic state of dissolved organic matter in the Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 50, 151–169, 2003.; Andreas, E. L. and Monahan, E. C.: The role of whitecap bubbles in air-sea heat and moisture exchange, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 433–4...

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The Role of Vertical Shear on the Horizontal Oceanic Dispersion : ...

By: R. Corrado; L. Palatella; G. Lacorata; I. Schipa; R. Santoleri; A. S. Lanotte; C. Pizzigalli

Description: CNR ISAC, GOS Team, Str. Prov. Lecce Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy. The effect of vertical shear on the horizontal dispersion properties of passive tracer particles on the continental shelf of South Mediterranean is investigated by means of observative and model data. In-situ current measurements reveal that vertical velocity gradients in the upper mixed layer decorrelate quite fast (∼ 1 day), whereas basin-scale ocean circulation models tend to overest...

Bennett, A. F.: A Lagrangian analysis of turbulent diffusion, Rev. Geophys., 25, 799–822, 1987.; Bennett, A. F.: Lagrangian Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2005.; Berloff, P. and McWilliams, J.: Material transport in Oceanic gyres – Part 2: Hierarchy of stochastic models, J. Phys. Ocean., 32, 797–830, 2002.; Boffetta, G., Celani, A., Cencini, M., Lacorata, G., and Vulpiani, A.: Non-asymptotic properties of transport and mixing, Chaos, 10, 50–60...

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Sensitivity Analysis of an Ocean Carbon Cycle Model in the North A...

By: H. Kettle; V. Scott; C. J. Merchant

Description: School of GeoSciences, The University of Edinburgh, EH9 3JN, UK. The sensitivity of the biological parameters in a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton-detritus (NPZD) model in the calculation of the air-sea CO2 flux, primary production and detrital export is analysed. The NPZD model is the Hadley Centre Ocean Carbon Cycle model (HadOCC) from the UK Met Office, used in the Hadley Centre Coupled Model 3 (HadCM3) and FAst Met Office and Universit...

Anderson, T., Ryabchenko, V., Fasham, M., and Gorchakov, V.: Denitrification in the arabian sea: A 3{D} ecosystem modelling study, Deep Sea Res. Pt. I, 54, 2082–2119, 2007.; Cao, L. and Caldeira, K.: Atmospheric CO}2 stabilization and ocean acidification, {Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L19609, doi:10.1029/2008GL035072, 2008.; Anderson, T.: A spectrally averaged model of light penetration and photosynthesis, Limnol. Oceanogr., 38, 1403–1419, 1993.; Anderson, T.: Pla...

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Ensemble Smoother for Optimizing Tidal Boundary Conditions by Assi...

By: J. Staneva; K.-w. Gurgel; A. Port; J.-m. Beckers; A. Alvera-azcárate; A. Barth; E. Stanev

Description: GeoHydrodynamics and Environment Research (GHER), MARE, Allée du 6-Août 17, University of Liège, Sart-Tilman B5, 4000 Liège, Belgium. High-Frequency (HF) radars measure the ocean currents at various spatial and temporal scales. These include tidal currents, wind-driven circulation, density-driven circulation and Stokes drift. Sequential assimilation methods updating the model state have been proven successful to correct the density-driven currents by assi...

Alvera-Azcárate, A., Barth, A., Bouallègue, Z. B., Rixen, M., and Beckers,  J.-M.: Forecast verification of a 3-D model of the Ligurian Sea. The use of discrete wavelet transforms in the skill assessment of spatial forecasts, J. Mar. Syst., 65, 460–483, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2005.09.015, 2007.; Arakawa, A. and Lamb, V.: Computational design of the basic dynamical process of the UCLA general circulation model, in...

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The Backward Îto Method for the Lagrangian Simulation of Transport...

By: A. W. Heemink; E. Deleersnijder; D. Spivakovskaya

Description: Department of Mathematical Physics, Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics (DIAM), Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands. Random walk models are a powerful tool for the investigation of transport processes in turbulent flows. However, standard random walk methods are applicable only when the flow velocities and diffusivity are sufficiently smooth functions. In practice there are some regions where the rapid but contin...

Bj\oork, T.: Arbitrage Theory in Continuous Time, Oxford University Press, 1998.; Bolin, B. and Rodhe, H.: A note on concepts of age distribution and transit time in natural reservoirs, Tellus, 25, 58–62, 1973.; Braunschweig, F., Martins, F., Chambel, P., and Neves, R.: A methodology to estimate renewal time scales in estuaries: the Tagus Estuary case, Ocean Dynam., 53, 137–145,2003.; Costa, M. and Ferreira, J S.: Discrete particle distribution model for advection-diffus...

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Subsurface Primary Production in the Western Subtropical North Pac...

By: K. Toyama; T. Saino; T. Suga; C. Sukigara; D. Yanagimoto; K. Hanawa; N. Shikama

Description: Department of Geophysics, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. A profiling float equipped with a fluorometer, a dissolved oxygen sensor, and temperature and salinity sensors was deployed in the Subtropical Mode Water (STMW) formation region. It acquired quasi-Lagrangian, 5-day-interval time-series records from March to July 2006. The time-series distribution of chlorophyll a showed a sustained and sizable deep chlorophyll maximum at 50–80 m, just above the...

Cullen, J. J.: The deep chlorophyll maximum: Comparing vertical profiles of Chlorophyll-a, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 39, 791–803, 1982.; Dugdale, R. C. and Goering, J. J.: Uptake of new and regenerated forms of nitrogen in primary productivity, Limnol. Oceanogr., 12, 196–206, 1967.; Dugdale, R. and Wilkerson, F.: Nutrient limitation of new production in the sea, Primary Productivity and Biogeochemical Cycles in the Sea, edited by: Falkowski, P. G. and Woodhead, A...

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Physical Forcing and Physical/Biochemical Variability of the Medit...

By: G. L. Borzelli-eusebi; A. Rubino; A. Crise; M. Sprovieri; M. Ribera D'Alcalà; V. Artale; K. Schroeder; I. Taupier-letage; E. Garcia-ladona; M. Gregoire; T. Tanhua; N. Kress; H. Kontoyannis; J. Font; A. Theocharis; G. Civitarese; M. G. Mazzocchi; J. Tintoré; P. Malanotte-rizzoli; S. Sofianos; A. Gogou; M. Gacic; F. D'Ortenzio; V. Kovacevic; S. Carniel; M. Orlic; J. M. Garcia-lafuente; P.-m. Poulain; D. Hainbucher; G. Triantafyllou; V. Cardin; J. Siokou-frangou; E. Krasakapoulou; M. Alvarez; E. Souvermezoglou; S. Brenner; Y. Ashkenazy; A. Bergamasco; S. Marullo; E. Ozsoy; A. Incarbona; A. Pascual; G. Krokos; W. Roether

Description: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. The importance of the Mediterranean Sea for the world ocean has long been recognized. First, the Mediterranean sea has a profound impact on the Atlantic ocean circulation and, consequently, on the global thermohaline conveyor belt. Maps of the Mediterranean salty water tongue exiting from the Gibraltar strait at intermediate depths and spreading throughout the Atlantic interior are well known s...

Alemany, F., Quintanilla, L., Velez-Belchí, P., García, A., Cortés, D., Rodríguez, J. M., Fernández de Puelles, M. L., González-Pola, C., and López-Jurado, J. L.: Characterization of the spawning habitat of Atlantic bluefin tuna and related species in the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean), Prog. Oceanogr., 86, 21–38 , 2010.; Alhammoud, B., Beranger, K., Mortier, L., Crepon, M., and Dekeyser, I.: Surface circulation of the Levantine Basin: comparison of model results w...

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Observations of a Phytoplankton Spring Bloom Onset Triggered by a ...

By: L. Fazioli; J. Tintoré; S. Cusí; R. Sorgente; A. Olita; A. Ribotti; S. Sparnocchia

Description: SOCIB, Balearic Islands Coastal Observing and Forecasting System, Palma de Mallorca, Spain. Phytoplankton blooms in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea are seasonal events that mainly occur in a specific area comprising the Gulf of Lion and the Provençal basin, where they are promoted by a general cyclonic circulation, strong wind-driven mixing and subsequent re-stratification of the water column. At the southern boundary of this area, a persistent densit...

Behrenfeld, M. J.: Abandoning Sverdrup's Critical Depth Hypothesis on phytoplankton blooms, Ecology, 91, 977–989, 2010.; Auger, P., Ulses, C., Estournel, C., Stemmann, L., Somot, S., and Diaz, F.: Interannual control of plankton communities by deep winter mixing and prey/predator interactions in the NW Mediterranean: Results from a 30-year 3D modeling study, Prog. Oceanogr., 124, 12–27, 2014.; Bernardello, R., Cardoso, J. G., Bahamon, N., Donis, D., Marinov, I., and Cruz...

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Mesoscale Variability of Water Masses in the Arabian Sea as Reveal...

By: P. L'Hegaret; R. Baraille; X. Carton

Description: LPO, UBO/UEB, Brest, France. By analysing ARGO float data over the last four years, a few aspects of the mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea are described.

The Red Sea Outflow Water (RSOW) is concentrated in the Southwestern Gulf of Aden, in particular when a cyclonic gyre predominates in this region. Salinities of 36.5 and temperatures of 16 °C are found in this area at depths between 600 and 1000 m. RSOW is more dilute ...

Böhm, E., Morrison, J. M., Manghnani, V., Kim, H. S., and Flagg, C. N.: The Ras al Hadd jet: Remotely sensed and acoustic Doppler current profiler observations in 1994–1995, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 46, 1531–1549, 1999.; Bower, A. S., Fratantoni, D. M., Johns, W. E., and Peters, H.: Gulf of Aden eddies and their impact on Red Sea Water, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 2025, doi:10.1029/2002GL015342, 2002.; Bower, A. S. and Furey, ...

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A Fishery Observing System for the Collection of Fishery and Ocean...

By: N. Cingolani; E. Arneri; A. Belardinelli; A. Santojanni; P. Falco; A. Russo

Description: Istituto di Scienze Marine – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Sezione di Ancona, Largo Fiera della Pesca 60125, Ancona, Italy. Fishery Observing System (FOS) was developed as a first and basic step towards fish stock abundance nowcasting/forecasting within the framework of the EU research program Mediterranean Forecasting System: Toward an Environmental Prediction (MFSTEP). The study of the relationship between abundance and environmental parameters a...

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Flow Dynamics Around Downwelling Submarine Canyons : Volume 10, Is...

By: S. E. Allen; J. M. Spurgin

Description: Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (northwestern Mediterranean) was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby and Burger numb...

Adcroft, A., Hill, C., Campin, J.-M., Marshall, J., and Heimbach, P.: Overview of the formulation and numerics of the MIT GCM, in: Proceedings of the ECMWF seminar series on Numerical Methods, Recent developments in numerical methods for atmosphere and ocean modelling, 139–149, 2004.; Allen, S. E.: Topographically generated, subinertial flows within a finite length canyon, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26, 1608–1632, 1996.; Allen, S. E. and Durrieu de Madron, X.: A review of the r...

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