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Temporal and Spatial Distribution of the Meiobenthic Community in ...

By: Y. Yan; H. X. Li; L. Tang

Description: CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Bio-resources Sustainable Utilization, Guangzhou 510301, China. Spatial and temporal biodiversity patterns of the meiobenthos were studied for the first time in Daya Bay, which is a tropical semi-enclosed basin located in the South China Sea. The abundance, biomass, and composition of the meiobenthos and the basic environmental factors in the bay were investigated. The following 19 taxonomic groups were represented in the...

Armenteros, M., Ruiz-Abierno, A., Fernández-Garcés, R., Pérez-Garc\'{i}a, J. A., D\'{i}az-Asencio, L., Vincx, M., and Decraemer, W.: Biodiversity patterns of free-living marine nematodes in a tropical bay: Cienfuegos, Caribbean Sea, Estuar. Coast. Shelf. S., 85, 179–189, 2009.; Blanchard, G. F.: Measurement of meiofauna grazing rates on microphytobenthos: is primary production a limiting factor?, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 147, 37–46, 1991.; Boucher, G.: Structure and bio...

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On the Fast Response of the Southern Ocean to Changes in the Zonal...

By: B. A. De Cuevas; D. J. Webb

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK. Model studies of the Southern Ocean, reported here, show that the Antarctic Circumpolar Current responds within two days to changes in the zonal wind stress at the latitudes of Drake Passage. Further investigation shows that the response is primarily barotropic and that, as one might expect, it is controlled by topography. Analysis of the results show that the changes in the barotropic flow are suf...

Bryan, K.: A numerical method for the study of the circulation of the world ocean, J Comput Phys., 4, 347–376, 1969.; Coward, A. C. and de Cuevas, B. A.: The OCCAM 66 Level Model: Physics, Initial Conditions and External Forcing, Southampton Oceanography Centre, Internal Report No 99, 58pp, 2005.; Cox, M. D.: A primitive equation 3-dimensional model of the ocean, Tech.Rep. 1, Geophys. Fluid Dyn. Lab, Natl. Oceanic and Atmos. Admin., Princeton Uni. Press, Princeton, N.J.,...

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Estimation of Positive Sum-to-one Constrained Zooplankton Grazing ...

By: L. Bertino; D. Dumont; A. Samuelsen; E. Simon

Description: Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Norway. We consider the estimation of the grazing preferences parameters of zooplankton in ocean ecosystem models with ensemble-based Kalman filters. These parameters are introduced to model the relative diet composition of zooplankton that consists of phytoplankton, small size-classes of zooplankton and detritus. They are positive values and their sum is equal to one. However, the sum-to-one constraint ca...

Anderson, J. L.: An ensemble adjustment Kalman filter for data assimilation, Month. Weath. Rev., 129, 2884–2903, 2001.; Bertino, L., Evensen, G., and Wackernagel, H.: Sequential D}ata {A}ssimilation {T}echniques in {O}ceanography, {International Statistical Review, 71, 223–241, 2003.; Aksnes, D., Ulvestad, K., Bali{ñ}o, B., Berntsen, J., and Svendsen, E. : Ecological modelling in coastal waters: towards predictive physical-chemical-biological simulation models, Ophelia, ...

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Impact of Currents on Surface Flux Computations and Their Feedback...

By: A. Ribotti; I. Iermano; F. Pessini; L. Fazioli; A. Olita; R. Sorgente; C. Tedesco

Description: Institute for Coastal Marine Environment of the National Research Council, Oristano Section, Torregrande, Italy. A twin numerical experiment was conducted in the seas around the island of Sardinia (Western Mediterranean) to assess the impact, at regional and coastal scales, of the use of relative winds (i.e., taking into account ocean surface currents) in the computation of heat and momentum fluxes through standard (Fairall et al., 2003) bulk formulas. T...

Shchepetkin, A. F. and McWilliams, J. C.: A method for computing horizontal pressure-gradient force in an oceanic model with a nonaligned vertical coordinate, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 108, 3090, doi:10.1029/2001JC001047, 2003.; Shchepetkin, A. F. and McWilliams, J. C.: The regional oceanic modeling system (ROMS): a split-explicit, free-surface, topography-following-coordinate oceanic model, Ocean Model., 9, 347–404, doi:...

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Assessment of the Importance of the Current-wave Coupling in the S...

By: M. Espino; R. Bolaños; A. Sánchez-arcilla; G. Jordà

Description: Institut Mediterrani d'Estudis Avançats (IMEDEA), c./Miquel Marqués 21, 07190 Esporles, Illes Balears, Spain. The effects of wave-current interactions on shelf ocean forecasts is investigated in the framework of the MFSTEP (Mediterranean Forecasting System Project Towards Enviromental Predictions) project. A one way sequential coupling approach is adopted to link the wave model (WAM) to the circulation model (SYMPHONIE). The coupling of waves and current...

Ardhuin, F. and Jenkins, A. D.: On the interaction of surface waves and the upper ocean turbulence, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 551–557, 2006.; Auclair, F., Marsaleix, P., and Estournel, C.: The penetration of the northern current over the Gulf of Lion (western Mediterranean Sea) as a downscaling problem, Oceanol. Acta, 24, 529–544, doi:10.1016/S0399-1784(01)01166-5, 2001.; Baumert H., Chapalain, G., Smaoui, H., McManus, J. P., Yagi, H., Regener, M., Sundermann, J., and Szil...

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Time and Space Variability of Freshwater Content, Heat Content and...

By: J. Zhao; B. Rudels; M. Korhonen; M. Marnela; A. Wisotzki

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland. Changes in the hydrography of the Arctic Ocean have recently been reported. The upper ocean has been freshening and pulses of warm Atlantic Water have been observed to spread into the Arctic Ocean. Although these changes have been intensively studied, salinity and temperature variations have less frequently been considered together. Here hydrographic observations, obtained by icebreaker expeditions co...

Aagaard, K. and Coachman, L. K.: Toward an ice-free Arctic ocean, Eos Trans. AGU, 56, 484–486, 1975.; Aagaard, K. and Carmack, E. C.: The role of sea ice and other fresh water in the Arctic circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 14 485–14 498, 1989.; Aagaard, K., Coachman, L. K., and Carmack, E. C.: On the halocline of the Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res., 28, 529–545, 1981.; Anderson, L. G., Björk, G., Holby, O., Jones, E. P., Kattner, G., Koltermann, K.-P., Liljeblad, B., Linde...

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The Rossby Radius in the Arctic Ocean : Volume 10, Issue 6 (28/11/...

By: S. Bacon; A. J. G. Nurser

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK. The first (and second) baroclinic deformation (or Rossby) radii are presented north of ~60° N, focusing on deep basins and shelf seas in the high Arctic Ocean, the Nordic seas, Baffin Bay, Hudson Bay and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, derived from climatological ocean data. In the high Arctic Ocean, the first Rossby radius increases from ~5 km in the Nansen Basin to ~15 km in the central Canadian Basin. ...

Aksenov, Y., Bacon, S., Coward, A. C., and Nurser, A. J. G.: The North Atlantic Inflow into the Nordic Seas and Arctic Ocean: a high-resolution model study, J. Marine Sys., 79, 1–22, 2010a.; Aksenov, Y., Bacon, S., Coward, A. C., and Holliday, N. P.: Polar outflow from the Arctic Ocean: a high-resolution model study, J. Marine Sys., 83, 14–37, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2010.06.007, 2010b.; Carmack, E. C.: The freshw...

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Characterization of Ascat Measurements Based on Buoy and Quikscat ...

By: C. Perigaud; D. Croize-fillon; A. Bentamy

Description: Institut Français pour la Recherche et l'Exploitation de la MER (IFREMER), France. The new scatterometer Advanced SCATterometer (ASCAT) onboard MetOp-A satellite provides surface wind speed and direction over global ocean with a spatial resolution of 25 km square over two swaths of 550 km widths. The accuracy of ASCAT wind retrievals is determined through various comparisons with moored buoys. The comparisons indicate that the remotely sensed wind speed...

% vor jede Referenz Ayina, H.-L., Bentamy, A., Madec, G., and Nuñez, A. M.: The Impact of Satellite Winds and Latent Heat Fluxes in a Numerical Simulation of the Tropical Pacific Ocean, J. Climate, 19(22), 5889–5902, doi:10.1175/JCLI3939.1, 2006.; Bentamy , A., Grima, N., and Quilfen, Y.: Validation of the gridded weekly and monthly wind fields calculated from ERS-1 scatterometer wind observations, Global Atmos. Ocean. System, 6, 373–396, 1998.; Blanke, B., Speich, S., B...

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Equilibrator-based Measurements of Dissolved Nitrous Oxide in the ...

By: J. Kaiser; I. Grefe

Description: School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, UK. A laser-based analyser for nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide and water vapour was coupled to an equilibrator for continuous high-resolution dissolved gas measurements in the surface ocean. Results for nitrous oxide measurements from laboratory tests and field deployments are presented here. Short-term precision for 10 s-average N2O mol...

Baer, D. S., Paul, J. B., Gupta, M., and O'Keefe, A.: Sensitive absorption measurements in the near-infrared region using off-axis integrated-cavity-output spectroscopy, Appl. Phys. B Lasers O., 75, 261–265, 2002.; Butler, J. H., Elkins, J. W., Thompson, T. M., and Egan, K. B.: Tropospheric and dissolved N2O of the west Pacific and east Indian Oceans during the El Nino Southern Oscillation event of 1987, J. Geophys. Res., % 94, 14865–14877, 1989.; Codispoti, L...

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Structure of Phytoplankton (Continuous Plankton Recorder and Seawi...

By: R. D. Pingree; S. C. Leterme

Description: Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth, UK. All marine organisms are affected to some extent by the movement and thermal properties of oceanic currents. However phytoplankton, because of its small size is most directly coupled to the physical environment. The intense hydrodynamic activity observed in the Northwest Atlantic Shelves Province makes this region especially intriguing from the point of view of p...

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Detecting Marine Hazardous Substances and Organisms: Sensors for P...

By: O. Zielinski; J. Engelbrektsson; K. L. Daly; J. A. Busch; A. D. Cembella; H. Schmidt; A. K. Hannides

Description: Institute for Marine Resources, Bremerhaven, Germany. Marine environments are influenced by a wide diversity of anthropogenic and natural substances and organisms that may have adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. Real-time measurements of pollutants, toxins, and pathogens across a range of spatial scales are required to adequately monitor these hazards, manage the consequences, and to understand the processes governing their magnitude and di...

Adornato, L. R., Kaltenbacher, E. A., Greenhow, D. R., and Byrne, R. H.: High-resolution in situ analysis of nitrate and phosphate in the oligotrophic ocean, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 4045–4052, 2007.; Alexander, J., Au{ð}unsson, G. A., Benford, D., Cockburn, A., Cravedi, J.-P., Dogliotti, E., Di Domenico, A., Fernández-Cruz, M. L., Fink-Gremmels, J., Fürst, P., Galli, C., Grandjean, P., Gzyl, J., Heinemeyer, G., Johansson, N., Mutti, A., Schlatter, J., van Leeuwen, R....

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Validation of Foam Near-surface Ocean Current Forecasts Using Lagr...

By: E. W. Blockley; P. Hyder; M. J. Martin

Description: Met Office, FitzRoy Road, Exeter, EX13PB, UK. In this study, the quality of near-surface current forecasts from the FOAM ocean forecasting system is assessed using the trajectories of Lagrangian drifting buoys. A method is presented for deriving pseudo-Eulerian estimates of ocean currents from the positions of Surface Velocity Program drifters and the resulting data are compared to velocities observed by the global tropical moored buoy array. A quantita...

Bonjean, F. and Lagerloef, G. S. E.: Diagnostic model and analysis of the surface currents in the tropical Pacific Ocean, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 2938–2954, 2002; Brushett, B. A., King, B. A., and Lemckert, C. J.: Evaluation of met-ocean forecast data effectiveness for tracking drifters deployed during operational oil spill response in Australian waters, J. Coastal Res., 64, 991–994, 2011; Burchard, H.: Energy-conserving discretisation of turbulent shear and buoyancy pro...

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How Does Ocean Ventilation Change Under Global Warming? : Volume 3...

By: F. Zeng; J. L. Russell; A. Gnanadesikan

Description: NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ, USA. Since the upper ocean takes up much of the heat added to the earth system by anthropogenic global warming, one would expect that global warming would lead to an increase in stratification and a decrease in the ventilation of the ocean interior. However, multiple simulations in global coupled climate models using an ideal age tracer which is set to zero in the mixed layer and ages at 1 yr/yr...

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Transient Residence and Exposure Times : Volume 2, Issue 1 (09/01/...

By: E. J. M. Delhez

Description: University of Liège, Mathematical Methods and Modelling, Belgium. The residence time measures the time spent by a water parcel or a pollutant in a given water body and is therefore widely used in environmental studies. The adjoint method introduced by Delhez et al. (2004) to compute this diagnostic is revised here to take into account the effect of the initialization and of the boundary conditions.

In addition to the equation for the mean...

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Scaling Aspects of the Sea-ice-drift Dynamics and Pack Fracture : ...

By: L. V. Panov; V. N. Smirnov; A. Chmel

Description: Fracture Physics Department, Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg, Russia. A study of the sea-ice dynamics in the periods of time prior to and during the cycles of basin-wide fragmentation of the ice cover in the Arctic Ocean is presented. The fractal geometry of the ice-sheets limited by leads and ridges was assessed using the satellite images, while the data on the correlated sea-ice motion were obtained...

Arneodo, A., Bacry, E., and Muzy, J. F.: The thermodynamics of fractals revisited with wavelets, Physica A, 213, 232–275, 1995.; Bouchaud, E.: Scaling properties of cracks, J. Phys.: Cond. Matter 9, 4319–4344, 1997.; Caldarelli, G., Di Tolla, F. D., and Petri, A.: Self-organization and annealed disorder in a fracturing process, Phys. Rev. Lett., 77, 2503–2506, 1996.; Carpinteri, A., Lacidogna., G., and Pugno, N.: Scaling of energy dissipation in crushing and fragmentatio...

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Temporal Variations of Zooplankton Biomass in the Ligurian Sea Inf...

By: S. Pensieri; P. Picco; E. Fanelli; R. Bozzano; M. E. Schiano

Description: National Research Council of Italy (CNR-ISSIA) – Via de Marini 6, 16149, Genova, Italy. Three years of 300 kHz ADCP data collected in the central Ligurian Sea are analyzed to investigate the variability of the zooplankton biomass and the Diel Vertical Migrations (DVM) in the upper thermocline. After a pre-processing aimed at avoiding the slant range attenuation, hourly volume backscattering strength time series are obtained. Despite the l...

Ainslie, M. A.: A simplified formula for viscous and chemical absorption in sea water, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 103, 1671–1672, 1998.; Andersen, V.: Zooplankton community during the transition from spring bloom to oligotrophy in the open NW Mediterranean and effects of wind events. 1. Abundance and specific composition, J. Plankton Res., 23, 227–242, 2001a.; Andersen, V.: Zooplankton community during the transition from spring bloom to oligotrophy in the open NW Mediterranea...

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Deriving a Sea Surface Climatology of Co2 Fugacity in Support of A...

By: P. E. Land; J. D. Shutler; D. K. Woolf; L. M. Goddijn-murphy; C. Donlon

Description: ERI, University of the Highlands and Islands, Ormlie Road, Thurso, UK. Climatologies, or long-term averages, of essential climate variables are useful for evaluating models and providing a baseline for studying anomalies. The Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Atlas (SOCAT) has made millions of global underway sea surface measurements of CO2 publicly available, all in a uniform format and presented as fugacity, f<...

Dlugokencky, E. J., Masarie, K. A., Lang, P. M., and Tans, P. P.: NOAA Greenhouse Gas Reference from Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Dry Air Mole Fractions from the NOAA ESRL Carbon Cycle Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network, available at: ftp://aftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/data/trace_gases/co2/flask/surface/ (last access: 27 July 2014), 2014.; Donlon, C. J., Nightingale, P. D., Sheasby, T., Turner, J., Robinso...

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An Empirical Stochastic Model of Sea-surface Temperatures and Surf...

By: I. Kamenkovich; S. Kravtsov; M. Ghil; D. Kondrashov

Description: University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Atmospheric Science group, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA. This study employs NASA's recent satellite measurements of sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea-level winds (SLWs) with missing data filled-in by Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA), to construct empirical models that capture both intrinsic and SST-dependent aspects of SLW variability. The model construction methodology us...

Abdi, H.: Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression, In: Encyclopedia of Social Sciences Research Methods, edited by: Lewis-Beck, M., Bryman, A., and Futing, T., Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2003.; Arya, S. P.: Introduction to Micrometeorology, Academic Press, New York, 307 pp, 1988.; Bretherton, C. S. and Battisti, D. S.: An interpretation of the results from atmospheric general circulation models forced by the time history of the observed sea surface temperature distribution,...

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A Fishery Observing System for the Collection of Fishery and Ocean...

By: N. Cingolani; E. Arneri; A. Belardinelli; A. Santojanni; P. Falco; A. Russo

Description: Istituto di Scienze Marine – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Sezione di Ancona, Largo Fiera della Pesca 60125, Ancona, Italy. Fishery Observing System (FOS) was developed as a first and basic step towards fish stock abundance nowcasting/forecasting within the framework of the EU research program Mediterranean Forecasting System: Toward an Environmental Prediction (MFSTEP). The study of the relationship between abundance and environmental parameters a...

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A Model for Predicting Changes in the Electrical Conductivity, Pra...

By: R. Pawlowicz

Description: Dept. of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, Canada. Salinity determination in seawater has been carried out for almost 30 years using the 1978 Practical Salinity Standard. However, the numerical value of so-called practical salinity, computed from electrical conductivity, differs slightly from the true or absolute salinity, defined as the mass of dissolved solids per unit mass of seawater. The difference arises because more recent ...

Conners, D. N. and Kester, D. R.: Effect of the major ion variations in the marine environment on the specific gravity-conductivity-chlorinity-salinity relationship, Mar. Chem., 2, 301–314, 1974.; Conners, D. N. and Weyl, P. K.: The partial equivalent conductances of salts in seawater and the density/conductance relationship, Limnol. Oceanogr., 13, 39–50, 1968.; Bacon, S., Culkin, F., Higgs, N., and Ridout, P.: IAPSO Standard Seawater: Definition of the Uncertainty in th...

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