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X-band Cosmo-skymed Wind Field Retrieval, with Application to Coas...

By: P. De Ruggiero; M. Migliaccio; S. Pierini; G. Spezie; A. Montuori

Description: Dipartimento per le Tecnologie, Università di Napoli Parthenope, Naples, Italy. In this paper, X-band COSMO-SkyMed© synthetic aperture radar (SAR) wind field retrieval is investigated, and the obtained data are used to force a coastal ocean circulation model. The SAR data set consists of 60 X-band Level 1B Multi-Look Ground Detected ScanSAR Huge Region COSMO-SkyMed© SAR data, gathered in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea during the summe...

Artale, V., Astraldi, M., Buffoni, G., and Gasparini, G. P.: Seasonal variability of gyre-scale circulation in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 14127–14137, 1994.; Bentamy, A., Queffeulou, P., Quilfen, Y., and Katsaros, K.: Ocean Surface Wind Fields Estimated from Satellite Active and Passive Microwave Instruments, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 37, 2469–2486, 1999.; Béranger, K., Mortier, L., Gasparini, G. P., Gervasio, L., Astraldi, M., and Crépon, M.: The d...

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How Essential Are Argo Observations to Constrain a Global Ocean Da...

By: E. Remy; P. Y. Le Traon; V. Turpin

Description: Mercator Ocean, Parc Technologique du Canal, 8–10 rue Hermès, 31520 Ramonville Saint Agne, France. Observing System Experiments (OSEs) are carried out over a one-year period to quantify the impact of Argo observations on the Mercator-Ocean 1/4° global ocean analysis and forecasting system. The reference simulation assimilates sea surface temperature (SST), SSALTO/DUACS altimeter data and Argo and other in situ observations from the Coriolis data center. ...

Balmaseda, M., Anderson, D., and Vidard, A.: Impact of Argo on analyses of the global ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L16605, doi:10.1029/2007GL030452, 2007.; Bell, M. J., Lefebvre, M., Le Traon, P.-Y., Smith, N., and Wilmer-Becker, K.: GODAE: The global ocean data assimilation experiment, Oceanography, 22, 14–21, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2009.62, 2009.; Benkiran, M. and G...

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Frontal Structures in the West Spitsbergen Current Margins : Volum...

By: W. Walczowski

Description: Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences, Powstancow Warszawy 55 81-712 Sopot, Poland. The structures of the hydrographic fronts separating the Atlantic origin waters from ambient waters in the northern Nordic Seas are discussed. Flows of the western and eastern branches of the West Spitsbergen Current create the Atlantic domain borders and maintain these fronts. The work is based on previous research and on investigations in the project ...

Druet, C.: Dynamika Stratyfikowanego Oceanu, PWN Warszawa, 146 pp., 1994.; Druet, C.: Elementy Hydrodynamiki Geofizycznej, PWN Warszawa, 111 pp., 1995.; Dietrich, G., Kalle, K., Krauss, W., and Siedler, G.: General Oceanography, 2nd Edn., Wiley-Intersci., New York, 626, 1980.; Aagaard, K. and Carmack, E.: The role of sea ice and other fresh water in the arctic circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 14485–14498, 1989.; Allen, J. T., Smeed, D. A., and Chadwick, A. L.: Eddies a...

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Comparative Heat and Gas Exchange Measurements in the Heidelberg A...

By: K. E. Krall; B. Jähne; L. Nagel

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. A comparative study of simultaneous heat and gas exchange measurements was performed in the large annular Heidelberg Air–Sea Interaction Facility, the Aeolotron, under homogeneous water surface conditions. The use of two gas tracers, N2O and C2HF5, resulted not only in gas transfer velocities, but also in the...

Asher, W. E., Jessup, A. T., and Atmane, M. A.: Oceanic application of the active controlled flux technique for measuring air–sea transfer velocities of heat and gases, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C08S12, doi:10.1029/2003JC001862, 2004.; Atmane, M. A., Asher, W., and Jessup, A. T.: On the use of the active infrared technique to infer heat and gas transfer velocities at the air–water free surface, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C08S14...

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The Analysis of Large-scale Turbulence Characteristics in the Indo...

By: K. O'Driscoll; V. Kamenkovich

Description: Institute of Oceanography, Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Hamburg, Bundesstrasse 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. The analysis is presented of the distribution of deep ocean turbulence characteristics on the horizontal scale of order 100 km in the vicinity of the Lifamatola Sill, from the Southern Maluku Sea (north of the sill) to the Seram Sea (south of the sill). The turbulence characteristics were calculated with ...

van Aken, H. M., Punjanan, J., and Saimima, S.: Physical aspects of the flushing of the East Indonesian basins, Neth. J. Sea Res., 22, 315–339, 1988.; van Aken, H. M., Bennekom, A. J. V., Mook, W. G., and Postma, H.: Application of Munk's abyssal recipes to tracer distributions in the deep waters of the Southern Banda basin, Oceanol. Acta, 14, 151–162, 1991.; van Aken, H. M., Brodjonegoro, I. S., and Jaya, I.: The deep-water motion through the Lifamatola Passage and its ...

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Optical Remote Sensing of the Gulf of Gabès – Relation Between Tur...

By: B. Nechad; F. Zargouni; K. Ruddick; R. Katlane Essersi

Description: University of Sciences Mathematic, Physics and Naturals of Tunisia, Tunisia. Optical remote sensing is used here in the Gulf of Gabès to provide scientific information to support environmental management. The Gulf of Gabès is located in the southern east coast of Tunisia. It is a shallow continental shelf with semi-diurnal tides with average amplitude of 2 m. Industrial activities in this area since the early 1970s may have contribute...

Burollet, P. F., Clairefond, P., and Winnock, E.: La mer pélagienne étude sédimentologique et écologique du plateau tunisien et du golfe de Gabès, Géologie Méditerranéenne, 6(1), 345 pp., 1979.; Ben Mustafa, K., Hattour, A., Mehetli, M., El Abed, A., and Tritar, B.: Bionomie des étages Infra et Circalittoral du golfe de Gabès, Bull. Inst. Natn. Scienc. Tech. Mer (Tunisie), 26(2), 5–48, 1999.; Bjaoui, B., Rais, S., and Koutitonsky, V. : Modélisation de la dispersion du ph...

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Empirical Correction of Xbt Fall Rate and Its Impact on Heat Conte...

By: G. Reverdin; M. Hamon; P. Y. Le Traon

Description: Laboratoire d'Oceanographie Spatiale, IFREMER, B.P.70 Plouzane, France. We used a collocation method between XBT and CTD/OSD (Ocean Station Data including bottle cast and low resolution CTD) from WOD05 (1°×2°×15 days) to statistically correct the XBT fall rate. An analysis of the annual median bias on depth showed that it is necessary to apply a thermal correction linked to probe calibration error, a second order correction on the depth as well as a ...

Gouretski, V. and Koltermann, K.: How much is the ocean really warming? Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L01610, doi:10.1029/2006GL027834, 2007.; Gouretski, V. and Reseghetti, F.: On depth and temperature biases in bthythermograph data: Development of a new correction scheme based on analysis of a global ocean database, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 57, 812–833, 2010.; Hanawa, K., Rual, P., Bailey, R., Sy, A., and Szabados, M.: A new depth-time equation for Sippican or TSK T-7, T-6 and T...

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One Plausible Reason for the Change in Enso Characteristics in the...

By: V. N. Stepanov

Description: Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, UK. It is well known that El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) causes floods, droughts in different regions of the Earth and the collapse of fisheries in the tropical Pacific, therefore forecasting of ENSO is an important task in climate researches. Variations in the equatorial warm water volume of the tropical Pacific and wind variability in the western equatorial Pacific has been considered ...

Alexander, M. A., Matrosova, L., Penland, C., Scott, J. D., and Chang, P.: Forecasting Pacific SSTs: linear inverse model predictions of the PDO, J. Climate, 21, 385–402, doi:10.1175/2007JCLI1849.1, 2008.; Alvarez-Garcia, F., Narvaez, W. C., and Ortiz Bevia, M. J.: An assessment of differences in ENSO mechanisms in a coupled GCM simulation, J. Climate, 19, 69–87, 2006.; Ambrizzi, T., Hoskins, B. J., and Hsu, H.-H.: Ros...

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Results from the Implementation of the Elastic Viscous Plastic Sea...

By: A. Keen; A. McLaren; W. Connolley

Description: British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0ET, UK. We present results of an implementation of the Elastic Viscous Plastic (EVP) sea ice dynamics scheme into the Hadley Centre coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model HadCM3. Although the large-scale simulation of sea ice in HadCM3 is quite good with this model, the lack of a full dynamical model leads to errors in the detailed representation of sea ice and limits our confidence i...

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The Mediterranean Ocean Colour Observing System: System Developmen...

By: R. Santoleri; G. Volpe; V. Forneris; C. Tronconi; S. Colella

Description: Istituto di Scienze dell'Atmosfera e del Clima, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma, Italy. This paper presents the Mediterranean Ocean Colour Observing System in the framework of the growing demand of near real time data emerging within the operational oceanography international context. The main issues related with the satellite operational oceanography are tied to (1) the near real-time ability to track data flow uncertainty sources; (2) in case o...

Santoleri, R., Volpe, G., Marullo, S., and Buongiorno Nardelli, B.: Open Waters Optical Remote Sensing of the Mediterranean Sea, in: Remote Sensing of the European Seas, edited by: Barale, V., and Gade, M., Springer, 103–116, 2008.; Siegel, D. A., Wang, M., Maritorena, S., and Robinson, W.: Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption, Appl. Opt., 39, 3582–3591, 2000.; Triantafyllou, G., Korres, G., Hoteit, I., Petihakis, G., and Ba...

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Mediterranean Forecasting System: Forecast and Analysis Assessment...

By: J. Pistoia; C. Fratianni; S. Pensieri; N. Pinardi; S. Dobricic; M. De Alfonso; M. Tonani; K. Nittis

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna, Italy. This paper describes the first evaluation of the quality of the forecast and analyses produced at the basin scale by the Mediterranean ocean Forecasting System (MFS) (http://gnoo.bo.ingv.it/mfs). The system produces short-term ocean forecasts for the following ten days. Analyses are produced weekly using a daily assimilation cycle. The anal...

% vor jede Referenz Alvarez Fanjul, E., Alfonso, M., Ruiz, M. I., Lopez, J. D., and Rodriguez, I.: Real time monitoring of Spanish coastal waters: The deep water network, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on EuroGOOS, Athens, 2003.; Buongiorno Nardelli, B., Larnicol, G., D�Acunzo, E., Santoleri, R., Marullo, S., and Le Traon, P. Y.: Near Real Time SLA and SST products during 2-years of MFS pilot project: processing, analysis of the variability and of the ...

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Trends in Coastal Upwelling Intensity During the Late 20Th Century...

By: A. Paul; S. Mulitza; M. Schulz; N. Narayan

Description: MARUM – Center for Marine Environmental Sciences and Faculty of Geosciences, University of Bremen, Germany. This study presents linear trends of coastal upwelling intensity in the later part of the 20th century (1960–2001) employing various indices of upwelling, derived from meridional wind stress and sea surface temperature. The analysis was conducted in the four major coastal upwelling regions in the world, which are off North-West Africa, Lüderitz, Ca...

Lemos, R. T. and Pires, H. O.: The upwelling regime off the West Portuguese Coast, 1941–2000, Int. J. Climatol., 24, 511–524, 2004.; Bakun, A.: Global climate change and intensification of coastal ocean upwelling, Science, 247, 198–201, 1990.; Bakun, A., Global greenhouse effects, multi-decadal wind trends and potential impacts on coastal pelagic fish populations, ICES Mar. Sc., 195, 316–325, 1992.; Barnston, A. G. and Livezey, R. E.: Classification, seasonality and pers...

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On the Permeability of Barrier Layers : Volume 6, Issue 1 (28/04/2009)

By: C. De Boyer Montégut; J. Mignot; M. Tomczak

Description: IPSL/LOCEAN, UPMC/CNRS/IRD/MNHN, Paris, France. We present a revisited 2-degree resolution global ocean climatology of monthly mean Barrier Layer Thickness (BLT) first proposed by de Boyer Montégut et al. (2007a). In addition to using an extended data set, we present a modified computation method in order to take into account the observed permeability of Barrier Layers (BL). We name permeability the fact that barrier layers can, in some areas, be very p...

Cronin, M. F. and McPhaden, M. J.: Barrier layer formation during westerly wind bursts, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C12), 8020, doi:10.1029/2001JC001171, 2002.; Boyer, T., Antonov, J., Garcia, H., Johnson, D., Locarnini, R., Mishonov, A., Pitcher, M., Baranova, O., and Smolyar, I.: W}orld {O}cean {D}atabase 2005, {NOAA Atlas NESDIS 60, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., s. {L}evitus, ed. edn., 190 pp., 2006.; de Boyer Mont{é}gut, C., Madec, G., Fisher, A. S., L...

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Optical Tools for Ocean Monitoring and Research : Volume 5, Issue ...

By: P. Fietzek; A. Barnard; S. White; M. R. Lewis; H. M. Sosik; C. Moore; O. Zielinski

Description: WET Labs, Inc., Corvallis, Oregon, USA. Requirements for understanding the relationships between ocean color and suspended and dissolved materials within the water column, and a rapidly emerging photonics and materials technology base for performing optical based analytical techniques have generated a diverse offering of commercial sensors and research prototypes that perform optical measurements in water. Through inversion, these tools are now being us...

% vor jede Referenz Aas, E. and Højerslev, N. K.: Analysis of underwater radiance observations: Apparent optical properties and analytical functions describing the angular radiance distribution, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 8015–8024, 1999; Adornato, L. R., Kaltenbacher, E. A., Greenhow, D. R., and Byrne, R. H.: High-Resolution/In Situ/Analysis of Nitrate and Phosphate in the Oligotrophic Ocean, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 4045–4052, 2007.; Alliance of Coastal Technologies (AC...

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Tropical Extra-tropical Thermocline Water Mass Exchanges in the Co...

By: A. Lazar; A. Solomon; I. Wainer

Description: Department of Physical Oceanography, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. The NCAR CCSM numerical coupled model is used to understand the tropical-extra-tropical pathways of thermocline waters in the Atlantic Ocean. Climatological annual mean simulation results from three numerical experiments are analyzed. Two are fully coupled runs with different spatial resolution (T42 and T85) for the atmospheric component. The third numerical experiment is a...

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Modelling Survival and Connectivity of Mnemiopsis Leidyi in the So...

By: J. Robbens; S. Pitois; L. Van Walraven; J. Van Der Molen; S. Augustine; V. Langenberg; H. W. Van Der Veer; J. Van Beek; L. Vansteenbrugge; K. Hostens

Description: The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), Lowestoft, UK. Three different models were applied to study the reproduction, survival and dispersal of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Scheldt estuaries and the southern North Sea: a high-resolution particle tracking model with passive particles, a low resolution particle tracking model with a reproduction model coupled to a biogeochemical model, and a dynamic energy budget (DE...

Antajan, E., Bastian, T., Raud, T., Brylinski, J.-M., Hoffman, S., Breton, G., Cornille, V., Delegrange, A., and Vincent, D.: The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz, 1865 along the English Channel and the North Sea French coasts: another introduction pathway in northern European waters?, Aquatic Invasions, 9, 167–173, doi:10.3391/ai.2014.9.2.05, 2014.; Augustine, S., Jaspers, C., Kooijman, S. A. L....

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Understanding Mixing Efficiency in the Oceans: Do the Nonlineariti...

By: R. Tailleux

Description: Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, UK. There exist two central measures of turbulent diffusive mixing in turbulent stratified fluids, which are both caused by molecular diffusion: 1) the dissipation rate D(APE) of available potential energy APE; 2) the rate of change Wr,mixing of background gravitational potential energy GPEr. So far, these two quantities have often been regarded...

%REFERENCE 1 %; %REFERENCE 2 %; %Andrews, D. G. 1981 %A note on potential energy density in a stratified compressible fluid. %J. Fluid Mech. 107, 227–236. %; % Ansumali, S., Karlin, I.V., and Öttinger, H.C. % Thermodynamic theory of incompressible hydrodynamics. % Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 080602. %; % Bannon, P. R. 1995 % Hydrostatic adjustment: Lamb's problem. % J. Atm. Sci. 52, 1753–1752. %; % Bannon, P. R. 2004 % Lagrangian available enrgetics and parcel instabilities. % ...

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Laminar and Weakly Turbulent Oceanic Gravity Currents Performing I...

By: A. Wirth

Description: LEGI/MEIGE/CNRS, UMR5519, France. The small scale dynamics of a weakly turbulent oceanic gravity current is determined. The gravity current considered is initially at rest and adjusts by performing inertial oscillations to a geostrophic mean flow. The dynamics is explored with a hierarchy of mathematical models. The most involved are the fully 3-D Navier-Stokes equations subject to the Boussinesq approximation. A 1-D and 0-D mathematical model of the sa...

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Eastern Mediterranean Biogeochemical Flux Model: Simulations of th...

By: A. Pollani; G. Triantafyllou; G. Korres; G. Petihakis; I. Hoteit

Description: Institute of Oceanography, Hellenic Center for Marine Research, P.O. BOX 2214, Iraklion-Crete, GR 71003, Greece. During the second phase (2003–2006) of the Mediterranean ocean Forecasting System Project (MFS) named Toward Environmental Predictions (MFSTEP) one of the three major aims was the development of numerical forecasting systems. In this context a generic Biochemical Flux Model (BFM) was developed and coupled with hydrodynamic models already opera...

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Towards High Resolution Mapping of 3-d Mesoscale Dynamics from Obs...

By: A. Pascual; Y. Drillet; S. Guinehut; B. Buongiorno Nardelli; S. Mulet; S. Ruiz

Description: Istituto di Scienze dell'Atmosfera e del Clima, Roma, Italy. The MyOcean R&D project MESCLA (MEsoSCaLe dynamical Analysis through combined model, satellite and in situ data) was devoted to the high resolution 3-D retrieval of tracer and velocity fields in the oceans, based on the combination of in situ and satellite observations and quasi-geostrophic dynamical models. The retrieval techniques were also tested and compared with the output of a primitive ...

Allen, J. T. and Smeed, D. A.: Potential vorticity and vertical velocity at the Iceland-Færœs front, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26, 2611–2634, 1996.; Autret, E. and Piollé, J. F.: Implementation of a global SST analysis, MERSEA-WP02-IFR-STR-001-1A report, 2007.; AVISO: Ssalto/Duacs userHandbook: (M)SLAand(M)ADT near-real time and delayed time products, SALP-MU-P-EA-21065-CLS, Edn. 3.0, 68 pp., 2012.; Barnier, B., Madec, G., Penduff, T., Molines, J. M., Treguier, A. M., Le Somme...

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